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Plant Test 2


Leaves Primary plant organ produced by a primary meristem that perform photosynthesis
True leaves Megaphylls
Clonal analysis Insert genes into marker cells and tracking which daughter cells developed from them
Marker cell Cell with inserted genes
Chimeral meristems Where marker cells are dividing
Where do leaves initiate L1, L2, and L3 layers in peripheral meristem
How do leaves develop? 5-100 founder cells into leaf buttress into leaf primordium into leaf
Founder cells Cells that give rise to leaves (elongation)
Leaf buttress Beginning of an outgrowth
Leaf primordium Outgrowth with flat surface
Marginal meristems Form blade of leaf (width)
What leaves don't have marginal meristems? Pine needles
Marginal meristem in monocot Encircles the stem
Stages of eudicot leaf development P1 (youngest) - P6 (oldest)
Phyllotaxy How leaves are arranged on stem
3 types of phyllotaxy Alternate, opposite, whorled
2 types of alternate phyllotaxy Helical and distichous
Helical 45 or 90 degrees, spiral, reduces shading in shade plants
Distichous 180 degrees, sun plants, elongation
Opposite 2 leaves per node
Type of opposite phyllotaxy Decussate
Dessucate Spiral, reduces shading
Whorled 3 or more leaves per node
Type of whorled phyllotaxy Verticillate
What determines phyllotaxis? Combination of classical and new model
Classical model Hormone inhibitor prevents formation of leaf primordia
New model Auxin (IAA) induces new primordia; primordia serve as sink and drain IAA from surrounding cells
IAA Indole Acetic Acid
Petiole Leaf stalk
Lamina Leaf blade
Stipule Reduced modified leaves at base of leaf
Early deciduous stipules Fall off
Persistent stipules Don't fall off
Sessile Leaf with no petiole
Sheath Portion of leaf blade that wraps around stem for support
Ligule Keeps sheath from pulling apart
Abaxial Lower leaf surface
Adaxial Upper leaf surface
Simple leaf Blade in one piece
Compound leaf Blade broken into small units called leaflets
What plants have reticulate or netted veins? Eudicots and Magnoliids
What plants have parallel veins? Monocots
Major veins Primary and secondary veins, cause bulge in epidermis
Minor veins Tertiary and smaller veins
How do major veins develop? Upward and outward from base to tip
How do minor veins develop? From tip towards base
What's the difference between a leaf and a leaflet? Leaves have axillary buds at base, leaflets don't
3 types of compound leaves Palmately, pinnately, bi-pinnately
Palmately compound All leaflets originate from common point
Petiolule Stalk of leaflet
Pinnately compound Leaflets radiate out from central axis
Rachis Area of central axis between leaflets
Bi-pinnately compound Have secondary petiolule, secondary leaflet, and rachilla
Rachilla Area of central axis between secondary leaflets
What is the dermal tissue in leaves? Upper and lower epidermis
What is the ground tissue in leaves? Mesophyll and bundle sheath
Mesophyll All tissue between upper and lower epidermis
4 characteristics of epidermis Parenchyma cells, normally living at maturity, outer wall thickest, most lack chloroplast
How is the epidermis different in xerophytes? Have secondary cell wall and are dead at maturity
Functions of epidermis Prevent water loss, mechanical & chemical protection, support
Remiform Kidney shaped guard cells found in eudicots and Magnoliids
Ostidform Bone shaped guard cells found in monocots
Anomocytic Epidermis with no guard cells or stomates, found in aquatic plants
Hypostomatic Stomata on lower epidermis only
Amphistomatic Stomata on upper and lower epidermis
Epistomatic Stomata on upper epidermis only
Astomatic No stomata
Hydrophytes Guard cells found above, found in leaves on the water's surface
Mesophytes Guard cells found equal
Xerophytes Guard cells sunken below epidermis
Stomata crypt Cavity in leaves lined with trichomes and stomates to reduce water loss
How do stomates open and close? Increased water pressure in guard cells opens them, decreased pressure closes them
Types of mesophyll Palisade and spongy
Palisade mesophyll Elongated, primary site of photosynthesis, chlorenchyma with chloroplasts
3 types of palisade mesophyll Uniseriate, biseriate, triseriate
Spongy mesophyll From bottom of palisade to lower epidermis, irregular shape, loose, fewer and smaller chloroplasts
Function of spongy mesophyll Transport and sometimes storage
Bundle sheath Layer(s) of parenchyma cells around a vein, irregular shape, tightly packed
Bilateral leaf Palisade on both surfaces, bi- or triseriate upper and uniseriate lower
What plants have bilateral leaves? Ones that grow on rocks or water and can absorb light reflected up from the surface beneath them
Plicate mesophyll Weird shape, pines have it to preserve water
Bundle sheath extension In minor veins only, parenchyma cells extend up and down to both epidermises
Function of bundle sheath extension Support because it's tightly packed
Vein rib Major veins, fiber &/or collenchyma extend up and down to epidermises for support
Uniformo-mesophyll Not separated into palisade and spongy, has Kranz anatomy
Kranz anatomy Orderly arrangement of mesophyll cells around large bundle sheath cells
Hypodermis Layer(s) of cells just beneath epidermis
4 characteristics of hypodermis Originate from mesophyll, lack chloroplasts, usually contain tannins, tightly packed
Secretory canals Specialized parenchyma cells that form canals in the mesophyll and contain resins
Idioblast Cell in tissue that differs in form, size, or content from other cells in that tissue
2 types of idioblasts Crystals and sclereids
Where is xylem in relation to phloem in leaves? Xylem is always above phloem
Leaf abscission Leaf falling from plant
Sun leaf Thicker with multiple layers of palisade mesophyll
Shade leaf Thinner and larger, 1 layer of palisade mesophyll, shape can vary
Sun leaf vs shade leaf Sun and shade leaves produce the same amount of sugars
How does abscission happen? Everything in leaf moved back into plant, IAA decreases, protective layer of suberin seals leaf off, abscission layer above suberin layer breaks down middle lamella with pectinase, severed leaf falls off
What goes back into stem before abscission? Ions, amino acids, sugars
Abscission zone Where abscission happens
Created by: iragland



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