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Science genetics

QuestionAnswer
What is the different between traits influenced by genes, and traits influenced by environmental factors? Traits by genes are natural, and what your original phenotype is supposed to be. Environmental factors aren't natural to the body, like dying your hair or dark skin from the sun.
What is a carrier? A person who carries a trait but does not show it.
What are the male and female sex chromosomes? Male: Y Female: X
How does down syndrome occur? When you have 3 chromosomes on chromosome pair 21 instead of only just 2.
What is sickle cell anemia? When your red blood cells are sickle shaped and cannot go through your bloodstream because they get clogged up.
Describe DNA It is a double Helix, Stands for DeoxyRiboNucleic Acid, made of Phosphates and sugars, also has Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Adenine base pairs.
What rules must be followed when ATCG bases are paired up? A only goes with T; and C only goes with G
What is a karyotype? A photograph of a person's chromosomes arranged in rows in pairs.
What is selective breeding? The process of selecting two different organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation to get the traits you want.
What is Inbreeding? Crossing two organisms, that have identical or similar sets of alleles.
What is cloning? Making an organism that is an exact copy of its parent.
What is a genome? The complete set of genes in an organism or cell
What was the purpose of the Human Genome Project? To identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome.
What is a mutation? An alteration in a genes's DNA
Describe the types of mutations that can occur Substitution: one letter is replaced Deletion: One letter is missing Addition (Insertion): One letter is added on
What is a gene? It determines a trait and comes from the parents.
What is genetic engineering? Placing the DNA of another organism into another organism's nucleus.
What's the difference between meiosis and mitosis? Mitosis: 1 cell division, binary fission, 2 daughter cells Meiosis, 2 cell divisions, 4 new cells, sperm and egg
What is unique about an identical twin's DNA? They have the exact same DNA.
Created by: sahaj5895