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Genetics II

What the difference between genes and environmental factors that influence traits? Traits influenced by genes come from a person's parents. But these van be changed by environmental factors. For example, you can be born with blond hair (gene), but you can dye it purple (environmental factor).
What is a carrier? A carrier is someone that has inherited a recessive allele for a mutation but does not display that trait . Carriers are, however, able to pass the allele onto their offspring.
What are the male and female sex chromosomes? Male: sperm, Female: egg
How does down syndrome occur? When there is an extra copy of chromosome 21, down syndrome occurs.
What is sicke-cell anemia? A mutation where blood cells are sickle shaped. This causes blood cells to get stuck in narrow veins and arteries which causes the blood flow to be stopped.
What is DNA? (shape and what it is made of) Deoxyribonucleic acid is shaped like a double helix and is made up of four chemicals: adenine, thymine , guanine, and cytosine.
What rules must be followed when ACTG bases are paired up? Adenine must pair up with thymine, and cytosine must pair up with guanine.
What is a karyotype? the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
What is selective breeding? The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as the parents of the next generation.
What is inbreeding? When two indivisuals that have similar or identical sets of alleles are crossed.
What is cloning? the process of producing a clone (an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced.
What is a genome? all the DNA in one cell of an organism
What was the purpose of the human genome project? To provide scientists with an encyclopedia of genetic information about humans, cure diseases, genetically modify humans, have a better understanding of what makes humans work.
What is a mutation? any change in a gene or chromosome
What types of mutations can occur? (description) substitution- when the wrong chemical base is used deletion- when a base pair is removed addition/insertion-when a base pair is added
What is a gene? a set of instructions for an inherited trait
What is genetic engineering? When genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism.
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis? MITOSIS- asexual, daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes, 1 division of the nucleus, produces 2 identical cells MEIOSIS- sexual, daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes, 2 divisions of the nucleus, produces 4 different cells
What is unique about an identical twin's DNA? They have the same DNA
Created by: shafaabbas