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Genetics II Test

Study Guide

Traits are influenced by genes and environmental factors. Explain the difference. Some traits, such as hair color are passed down through genes. But certain actions, like being in the sun for too long, can change your hair color.
What is a carrier? Someone or something who is not affected by a disease, but can pass it on to their children.
What are the male and female sex chromosomes? Males have XY, and females have XX
How does down syndrome occur? When there is an extra copy of chromosome 21
What is sickle-cell anemia? A genetic mutations where red blood cells are not able to carry as much oxygen, and become sickle shaped, resulting in unhealthy blood.
Describe DNA (include it's shape and makeup) The genetic code that holds instructions for life. It is shaped in a double-helix fashion, and is made up of 4 bases: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine.
What rules must be followed when ATCG bases are paired up? A (Adenine) must always pair up with T (Thymine), and C (Cytosine) must always pair with G (Guanine).
What is a karyotype? A visual of your chromosomes and how they look.
What is selective breeding? Breeding certain animals with desirable traits to get an animal with all the desired traits.
What is inbreeding? Breeding members of the same family with similar or identical genes to get desired traits
What is cloning? Producing an animal that is genetically identical to the animal from which it's cell was taken.
What is a genome? All the DNA and genes in a cell or an organism.
What was the purpose of the human genome project? To map all the genes in the human genome
What is a mutation? When genetic code is not correct, and either an extra base is added, a base is not present, or it is the wrong base.
Describe the types of mutations that can occur. Addition, Deletion, and Substitution
What is a gene? A set of instructions for making protein, and is made of DNA
What is genetic engineering? Transferring genes from one organism to the DNA of another.
What is the difference in mitosis and meiosis? Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction and produces 2 identical cells. Meiosis is a form of sexual reproduction and produces 4 daughter cells that have 0.5 the number of chromosomes from each cell.
What is unique about an identical twin's DNA? They are identical.