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General Biology 2


earliest plants are thought to be evolved from, descendants of... green algae
scientific name for PHYLOGENY of GREEN ALGAE , {closest extant relative of land plants} CHAROPHYCEANS "origins, ancestor to land plants" think 'mother ocean, charophycean, aqueous, closest relative'
four major phases of plant evolution I. [bryophytes], NON-VASCULAR PLANTS, no xylem/phloem MOST SIMILAR TO CHAROPHYCEANS II. [seedless vascular plants], had xylem and phloem. III. [gymnosperm] seed that nourishes and protects IV. [angiosperm] flowering plants, FRUITING, easily pollenated
GGT SSE gametophytes produce gametes mitotically Sporophytes produce Spores via mEiosis
Thallus gametophyte plant body lacks xylem or phloem
bryophyte reproduction requires (mosses) water! for the sperm to travel via chemotaxis
bryphyte resource movement (mosses) water via OSMOSIS, nutrients via DIFFUSION 'mosses osmosis'
3 phyla of nonvascular plants [ bryophytes ] mosses, liverworts, hornworts
branches of unicellular filament produced by germinating moss spore protonema
bryophyte gametophytes anchored via rhizoids (1n) key: primarily for support, not for water/mineral transport
gamete producing structure [bryophytes/nonvasculars] gametophore [bryophytes/nonvasculars]
bryophyte anatomy 1. rhizoid 2.
bryophyte sporophytes can survive independently? no, bryophyte sporophytes are dependent on parental gametophyte.
bryophyte ploidy sporophyte bryophyte ploidy sporophyte - 2n diploid
prefix/suffix 1 1 green: 2 with or together with: 3 life: 4 outer layer, bark: 5 leaf: 6 formed substance: 7 light: 8 middle: 9 top, highest: 10 tough, hard: 1 chloro- 2 co- 3 bio- 4. -cortex 5 - phyll 6 -plasm 7 photo- 8 meso- 9 apic- 10 scler-
prefix/suffix 2 1. to produce: 2 skin: 3 of neither gender or type: 4 below: 5 egg: 6 to bear, to carry: 7 between: 8 change, turn, move: 9 across: 10 around: / 1. gen- 2. cuti 3. neutr- 4. hypo- 5 oo- (or ov-) 6 -fer 7 inter- 8 -trop- 9 trans- 10 peri-
Created by: danchopanda



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