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Micro Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What is found on the 5' end of the DNA strand? a phosphate group
semiconservative DNA replication each daughter DNA molecule is composed of one original strand and one new strand
what are the characteristics of Okazaki fragments? they are made by DNA polymerase III, they make up the lagging strands of replicated DNA, they begin with RNA primer, they are joined together by DNA lligase
what processes are involved in protein synthesis? translation only
during transcription, RNA polymerase makes mRNA by "reading" what strand of DNA template
using the genetic code, what amino acid is coded by the mRNA codon AAA? lysine
what the anticodon attach to? the mRNA codon
genes segments of DNA that codes for a functional product
chromosomes genes essential for survival
plasmid extra chromosomal DNA that replicate independently not essential for normal bacterial metabolism, growth or reproduction, can confer survival advantages
gene expression gene activity leads to a protein product in a cell (protein synthesis)
complementary base pairing 5 prime end is down and 3 prime end is up
what are the 5' and 3' ends the way the DNA replicate, the newly made "leading strand" is synthesized continuous and the newly made "lagging strand is synthezised discontinuously
antiparallel complementary DNA strands are antiparallel newly made strands have to run 5 prime to 3 prime
which strand of DNA is continuous the leading strand
what is the origin of replication direction of leading parental strand
DNA helicase unwinds DNA and creates replication fork pull apart double strand of DNA
Stabilizing proteins bind to prevent reannealing, it keeps the DNA strands apart
replication forks it moves as replication takes place
the lagging strand is discontinuous
DNA polymerase (III) AND (I) used to help put in RNA primers, binds and adds nucleotides to hydroxyl group at 3 end of nucleic acid. It replaces RNA primer with DNA
RNA primer complementary to "moms" DNA to nucleotides
RNA polymerase synthesizes short RNA sequencing called primers= starting points for DNA synthesis
DNA ligase seals gap between okazaki fragments
okazaki fragment short, newly synthesized DNA fragments
RNA single strand and is composed of the sugar ribose, substitutes uracil for thymine
mRNA carries genetic information to ribosomes
rRNA found in ribosomes
tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosomes where the protein product is synthesized (transfer)
transcription DNA transcribed to RNA
translation RNA translated to form polypeptides
coding strand strand of DNA that codes for a protein, it is the same as the mRNA except for substitution bases- uracil thymine
template strand complementary to coding strand, this is the strand that is transcribed to make mRNA
codon reading the genetic code three bases at a time
operon group of genes that work together and helps regulate gene expression
what are the components of the operon promoter, operator, structural genes
operator DNA segment, repressor protein binds to prevent the attachment of promoter gene
promoter DNA segment where the RNA polymerase attaches to being transcription
structural genes code for specific proteins
inducible operons gene usually not transcribed, must be turned off by a substance
repressible gene always transcribed (on) must be turned off
mutation change in sequence of bases within a gene
mutagens agents that cause mutations
point mutations single base at one point in the DNA sequence is inserted, deleted, or substituted by another base
frameshift mutations one or several base pairs are deleted or inserted in to the DNA sequence, shifts from the "transitional reading frame"
Created by: BrookeMcCullen