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What is Friedrich Miescher known for? First to identify DNA as a distinct molecule, called it nuclein, he didn't believe it was the genetic molecule
Describe Frederick Griffith's experiment and what his major findings were that contributed to the concept of DNA. Injected mice w/ R-Strain & S-Strain. Mouse w/ S - Strain died, mouse w/ R-Strain lived. Heated up S-Strain to kill harmful bacteria, turned harmless. Then he mixed Dead Bacteria & Harmless bacteria & mouse died. He called this the Transforming Principle.
What is transformation? Bacteria taking in DNA and Transforming to another form.
Describe Oswald Avery's experiment and what his major findings were that contributed to the concept of DNA. Repeated Griffith's experiment but added. Discovered that DNA is the Transforming Principle.
Describe Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase's experiment and what his major findings were that contributed to the concept of DNA. Used radioactive sulfur when the injected to the bacteria it wasn't radioactive . Used radioactive phosphorous (virus has radioactive DNA) when injected into bacteria it was radioactive. They learned DNA holds the instructions and is the genetic material.
What contribution did Erwin Chargaff provide for the structure of DNA? Discovered they key facts needed to determine the structure of DNA [Base Pair Rules(A-T, G-C)]
How did Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins' contribute to the knowledge of DNA? Took X-Ray photos of DNA.
What contribution did James Watson and Francis Crick provide for the structure of DNA? Built 3D model of DNA.
Describe what double helix means. Twisted Double Strand
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Where is DNA located? In the Nucleus
What are the three main parts of a DNA nucleotide? Phosphate group, 5 Carbon Sugar, Nitrogen Base
What is the "Backbone" of the double helix made of? Sugar and Phosphate
Where in the double helix are the nitrogen bases located? In the rungs of the ladder
What are the four nitrogen bases in DNA? Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, Guanine
What are the base pair rules? A-T, G-C
Why do the nitrogen bases pair up the way they do? For the same width all the way down and to maximize the number of hydrogen bonds.
Which two are Pyrimidines? C & T
Which two are Purines? A & G
How are the Pyrimidines and the Purines different? Pyrimidines are a single ring of carbon and nitrogen. Purines are double rings.
Which carbon is the phosphate group attached to? 5th carbon
Which carbon is the nitrogen base attached to? 1st carbon
What is DNA replication? The process of making exact copy of DNA.
What does helicase do? Breaks up the hydrogen bonds that link the bases.
What does DNA polymerase do? Adds nucleotides to exposed bases, proofreads DNA
What does ligase do? Bonds Okazaki fragments together
What does primase do? Builds an RNA primer
How many DNA polymerase enzymes can replicate a strand of DNA at one time? Thousands
In prokaryotes, how many points of replication are there? 2
What does semi-conservative mean with regards to DNA replication? Half the original DNA strand is used in the new strand.
What is a primer? Why is it needed? Primer allows DNA polymerase (attaches to RNA to start its job) to begin replication.
In what direction does DNA polymerase add nucleotides? 5 to 3
What does anti-parallel mean? One strand is going 5 to 3. The other is 3 to 5
What is the location called where the two DNA strands are being separated? Replication Fork
What is a leading strand? Built continuously
What is a lagging strand? Built in fragments
What are the fragments called that make up the lagging strand? Okazaki fragements
Explain the entire process of how a strand of DNA is replicated. Helicase splits the DNA (breaks the H bonds) DNA polymerase (p) does job on the leading & lagging strand. Primase builds RNA primer (P) the DNA p attaches to primer & builds chunks of DNA. The ligase connects the chunks & gets rid of P besides P on end.
In our DNA extraction lab, why did you have to add detergent? It breaks down lipids & membranes.
In our DNA extraction lab, why did you have to add meat tenderizer? It breaks down proteins that make the DNA coil.
What was the ingredient in the meat tenderizer we were really using? Enzymes
In our DNA extraction lab, why did you have to add alcohol? In order for the proteins and lipids to not reattach to the DNA, to extract DNA.
Why wouldn't the lab worked if we added the meat tenderizer before the detergent? The meat tenderizer could not get to the proteins if the membrane was still there.
What does DNA code for? Proteins
What is a gene? Section of DNA that codes for a protein.
What does RNA stand for? Ribonucleic Acid
What are the three differences between DNA and RNA? DNA is double stranded, uses Deoxyribose, and "Thymine". RNA is single stranded, used Ribose, and "Uracil"
Which carbon loses the oxygen to turn RNA into DNA? 2nd Carbon
What are the three types of RNA? mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
What is transcription? Writes DNA's message into mRNA
What is the role of messenger RNA (mRNA)? Rewrites message as codons, carries message from nucleus to ribosomes.
Where does transcription take place? Nucleus of a cell.
What enzyme is responsible for transcription? RNA polymerase
What is the role of rRNA? Builds ribosomes
What is an intron? Parts of DNA that doesn't hold information.
What is and exon? Parts of DNA that hold genetic information.
What is translation? Translates mRNAs message to anticodons to bring correct amino acid. mRNA to Proteins.
Where does translation take place? Cytoplasm/Ribosomes
What do we call the three letter sequences in DNA and mRNA that get "read"? Codons
What do codons code for? Amino Acids
What is the start codon and which amino acid does it code for? AUG, codes for met
What is a stop codon? UGA, UAA, UAG
What is the purpose of translation? To translate DNA to RNA so it can travel outside of Nuclear membrane, to give info. to ribosomes, to build proteins.
What is the role of transfer RNA? brings in amino acids and puts them in order.
What is an anti-codon? 3 letters in tRNA
What amino acid do all proteins begin with? MET
What type of bonds are formed between the amino acids? Peptide bonds
How many nucleotides are in one codon? 3
What indicates to the ribosome complex that translation is finished? The stop codon
Is there an amino acid added at a stop codon? NO
Explain the entire process of how we go from the DNA code to a functional protein. DNa is turned to mRNA in nucleus. mRNA travels to cytoplasm/ribosome (R). R read mRNA, translation occurs after the start codon, goes until stop codon & protein is released. R pull in RNA & puts the AA's in correct order, tRNA goes & picks up another AA.
What is a mutation? A change in DNA.
What is a mutagen? Anything that causes a mutation.
What are some causes of mutations? Radiation, Smoking, Diet.
What does it mean if we say a cell is a mutant cell? Contains a mutation.
If a mutation occurs in a somatic cell, will that mutation be passed on the daughter cell after mitosis? Yes
If a mutation occurs in a somatic cell, will that mutation be passed on to your offspring? No
If a mutation occurs in a gamete, will that mutation be passed on to your offspring? Yes
What are the two main types of mutations? Point Mutations & Chromosomal Mutations
What is a point mutation? A small mutation that occurs at one point.
What is a substitution mutation? Swapping one base for another
What is a deletion mutation? Remove a base, frameshift, dangerous, rare
What is an insertion mutation? Adding a base, frameshift, dangerous, rare
What mutations cause a frameshift? What is a frameshift? Deletion & Insertion, It is where all the bases are shifted over to make new codons/proteins.
What is a silent mutation? When a mutation goes unnoticed, protein does not change.
What is a missense mutation? When a protein changes from one amino acid to another.
What is a nonsense mutation? When the changed codon changes to a stop codon.
What are the four types of chromosomal mutations? Deletion, Duplication, Inversion, Translocation
Created by: Elise.Postma
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