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evolution misc..

various words from some of the worksheets

What are two things to talk about when talking about EVOLUTION ( 2 aspects) there is a descent from a common ancestor(succession from a common ancestor) ... and during the descent things change
Give a definition of evolution A change in the inherited traits of a population over time
evolution is a _______ (hint: noun or verb etc) PROCESS .... it just happens
What islands are considered an evolution research laboratory Galapagos islands off coast of Ecuador
What was the name of Darwin's book on how evolution worked On the Origin of the species by means of Natural Selection
Darwin would have had some very good evidence to support his ideas about natural selection but the crew ate the evidence... explain The Galapagos tortoises were different from one island to the next similar to the Galapagos finches ( they changed to suit each of the different islands )
Describe Darwin's thoughts about the origin of different species... when he started the voyage on the Beagle in 1835 He was a creationist and believed in the fixity of species ( they were created by God as they are today and have never changed
Was Darwin the first to think about the process of plants and animals evolving or changing... explain No... his grandfather and others suggested that animals came from a common ancestor
Darwin became an evolutionist in 1837 or 1840, What made him question the fixity of species the different islands of the galapagos(near each other) had animals that seemed to be relatives BUT THEY WERE NOT THE SAME...
What did Darwin do from the time he returned to England and became an evolutionist ( about 1840) until he published Origin of the Species in 1859 He stayed quiet about evolution ( knew it wouldn't make his wife happy) and gathered more evidence .
What idea or insight did Darwin gain from Malthus' essay on population growth and the food supply He noticed there was a struggle for existence.. Life is not easy
What name is given to Darwin's idea about how evolution works ( a mechanism for evolution) Natural Selection
what did fittest mean in Darwin's time.... compared to NOW fittest in Darwin's time was the best able to survive and reproduce in a particular environment (now it is the strongest ... you don't have to be the strongest to evolve successfully)
Explain the process of natural selection using the snail population that have yellow and brown snails as variations in color ( they lived in a yellow meadow) If there were brown and yellow snails living in a yellow meadow, the yellow snails had an advantage ( they are hidden better and avoid predators).. they survive and reproduce more successfully so the yellow gene increases in the population
If Natural Selection has no selector like humans doing artificial selection, how does it work this process works because there is a difference in survival and reproduction rates. This difference can happen because of the interaction of something in the organism( such as color) with some feature of the environment ( color of background)
What Evolves? a population evolves. ( some genes can increase in frequency and others can decrease)... Individuals typically do not change their characteristics ( a brown snail does not turn yellow)
Who saw evolution in action in the Galapagos islands... Famous Evolutionists ( there is an exhibit at Morrill Hall)- explain The Grants.... they observed finches with a variation in their beak size.. during drought situations the larger beaked finches had an advantage and the large beak gene increased in frequency for several years. they saw this change go back and forth
What was Darwin's definition of species... What is the biological definition of species Darwin; a group of organisms that looked similar and had similar behavior...and different from other groups... bio ( group of similar organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring
One way to get different species ( or new species) species occur when a population is split into multiple groups that have lost reproductive contact and then each population evolves in its own way... if they get back together that can not reproduce
Is a chimp your ancestor or your cousin explain the chimp is your cousin... both the chimp and human have a common ancestor.
Did evolution occur to create Humans which are the top , best organisms ( explain) No, there is lots of diversity and all share ancestors
What are 4 general things that give evidence of evolution (3 are sciences) Fossils, comparative anatomy, comparative biochemistry and comparative embryology
Which type of evolution evidence was NOT something Darwin could have used in his collection of evidence for Natural Selection Biochemical evidence
What evidence of evolution has limitations ... because there are missing pieces but is still important fossil record
What does the fossil record show about evolution ...give examples it shows ancestry ( ancient species have some similarities to current species... a very large fossil that looks like an armadillo), or patterns of evolution ( horse have a transition from 3 toed to 2 toed to hoofed animals... small to large)
What is a"living fossil" and give an example species that have remained unchanged for millions of years they show that sometimes the environment doesn't force changes( the horseshoe crab, sharks, ginkgo trees)
What is a "transitional fossils" and give example a fossils that has features shared by different species and shows a possible link between two organisms... The Archaeopteryx... a birds that has several dinosaur or reptile features in addition to the bird features
What are derived traits and ancestral trait they are linked to transitional fossils .. derived traits are newer features of the fossil and ancestral traits are older features from the earlier organism
In an Archaeopteryx.. what are the ancestral traits and the derived traits the ancestral traits are features of the reptile ( teeth, scales on legs etc).. derived traits would be the feathers etc
What are homologous structures limbs or body parts that are similar in structure and usually don't have the same function ( they are modified for different uses).... They show common ancestry
what do homologous structures tell us about evolution Body structures are more likely to be modified instead of a totally new parts being developed
What else should be similar if organisms have homologous structures in common they should have DNA sequences that are very similar
What are vestigial structures they are homologous structures that are reduced in form compared to the same structures in other organisms. They have lost all of most of their original function in the course of evolution...THEY POINT TO A COMMON ANCESTOR and show evolutionary history
The hind legs left over in the body of whales, or snakes/ the human appendix, the wisdom teeth , left over ear muscles above ears, the tail bone these are all ? vestigial structures
What type of structures may have the same function ( such as wings for flight)... but are not made of the same materials or have a similar structure analogous structures
what do analogous structures tell someone about evolution that similar features can evolve independently in similar environments... they do not indicate common ancestors
What does comparative embryology say about evolution embryos that are compared during early development can show common ancestry is they are similar... they also show evolutionary relationships
Give an example of something that is compared in the science of comparative biochemistry DNA sequences or Amino acid sequences in proteins
Humans share approximately 96% of their DNA sequences with chimpanzees...85% with mice and 75% with chickens. This reveals? This tells us that humans are more closely related to chimps than chickens ..
What does comparative biochemistry tell us about evolution it tells us about evolutionary ancestry ( common ancestry). the more closely related two organisms are in the evolutionary tree the more similarities in biochemicals they share
What does it mean when many organisms have the same complex molecules ( some of the enzymes such as cytochrome C) the molecules evolved early in earth history and were passed on through the life-forms that have lived on earth
How does the comparison of biomolecules reflect patterns seen in comparative anatomy or the fossil record we see that organisms that have closely related structures ( or morphological features) ALSO have more closely related molecules
what are two different patterns of evolution adaptive radiation or divergent evolution AND convergent evolution
What is another name for adaptive radiation divergent evolution
Adaptive radiation or divergent evolution is associated with ____ structures found in the organisms homologous
_______ structures found in organisms may point to the fact that convergent evolution has occurred? analogous
which pattern of evolution had a common ancestor and the organisms are modified to live in different environments or do different tasks so produce homologous structures and can form different species adaptive radiation or divergent evolution
What can cause divergent evolution to occur? the organisms may be in a new habitat or have a new ecological opportunity ( maybe a mass extinction happened)
What can cause convergent evolution to occur? the organisms evolve for a similar ecology or environments ( the organisms all swim or fly)
During convergent evolution, do the species that end of looking similar become more related? No ... only their appearance .. they produce analogous structures
Created by: shemehl



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