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Chapter 2, HBH&I

2. Basic Chemistry

What occupies space and has weight? Matter
What are the three states of matter? Solid, liquid, and gas
What is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactions Element
Elements that are present in tiny amounts in the body are known as _________. Trace elements
What four elements make up 96% of the body weight Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
The smallest unit of an element with that element's chemical characteristics is called a/an __________ Atom
Symbol for Oxygen O
Symbol for Carbon C
Symbol for Hydrogen H
Symbol for Nitrogen N
Symbol for Calcium Ca
Symbol for Phosphorus P
Symbol for Potassium K
Symbol for Sulfur S
Symbol for Sodium Na
Symbol for Chlorine Cl
Symbol for Mangesium Mg
Symbol for Iron Fe
Symbol for Iron Fe
Symbol for Iodine I
This subatomic particle carries a positive (+) electrical charge and is found in the nucleus Proton
This subatomic particle carries a neutral (no) electrical charge and is found in the nucleus Neutron
This subatomic particle is negatively charged and can be found circling the nucleus in orbits Electron
The number of protons in the nucleus is called the _________ Atomic number
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is known as the ________ Atomic weight
If one adds one or more neutrons to an atom you create a _________ Isotope
Unstable isotopes are called _________ Radioisotopes
The process of spontaneous breakdown (decay) is called _________ Radioactivity
The first electron shell of an atom contains how many electrons Two
The electrical attraction between atoms is a _________ Chemical bond
The three types of chemical bonds are _______, _______, and ________ ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds
Transferring electrons between atoms creates a/an ______ bond Ionic
Sharing electrons by the outer shells of the atoms results in what type of bond? Covalent bond
The study of carbon containing substances is called _____________ Organic chemistry
The study of non–carbon containing substances is called _______ Inorganic chemistry
A bond that occurs between polar molecules (having one end + and one end – charged) is called a ________ bond Hydrogen bond
Elements that carry an electrical charge are called _____ Ions
If an ion is positively charged, it is called a/an ________ Cation
If an ion is negatively charged, it is called a/an ______ Anion
A substance that forms ions when it is dissolved in water is called a/an ________ Electrolyte
Ions are formed when elements give up or gain a/an __________ Electron
This cation is important in fluid balance, is the main extracellular cation, and also important for nerve–muscle function Sodium: Na+
This cation is a major component of bones and teeth, is important for blood clotting and muscle function Calcium: Ca+2
This cation is a component of hemoglobin (oxygen transport) Iron: Fe+2
This cation is important in acid–base balance Hydrogen: H+
This cation is the chief intracellular cation Potassium: K+
This anion is the primary extracellular anion Chloride: Cl–
This anion is important in acid–base regulation Bicarbonate: HCO–3
This anion is a component of bones and teeth, also a component of ATP (cellular energy molecule) Phosphate:
When an electrolyte splits, or breaks apart in solution, the electrolyte is said to _______ Dissociate
The process of dissociation is referred to as ________ Ionization
When two or more atoms bond together, they form a _______ Molecule
A substance that contains molecules formed by two or more different atoms is called a __________ Compound
The most abundant compound in the body is _______ Water: H20
Name 5 things that make water so special? Water is universal solvent, water as a temperature regulator, water as an ideal lubricant, water in chemical reactions, and water as a protective device
The molecule that we breathe is called __________ Oxygen: O2
This compound is a waste product of metabolism and is eliminated through the lungs Carbon dioxide: CO2
A process whereby the atoms of molecules or compounds interact to form new chemical combinations is called a ________ Chemical reaction
Chemical substances that speed up the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction are called __________ Catalysts
When proteins act as catalysts they are called _________ Enzymes
An electrolyte that dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and an anion (– ion) is called a/an ________ Acid
HCl dissociates completely into H+ and Cl– therefore it is a strong ________ Acid
Vinegar does not dissociate completely into H+ and acetate therefore it is a/an ________ acid Weak
These substances are the opposite of acids and usually contain hydroxyl ion (OH–) Bases
The unit of measurement of H+ in a solution is called _________ pH
The pH scale ranges from ____ to _____ 0–14
A substance with a pH between 7 – 14 would be said to be acidic or basic Basic
The pH of blood is maintained between the range of ____ to _____ 7.35–7.45
With reference to the pH of human blood a pH below 7.35 is said to be ________ Acidosis
With reference to the pH of human blood a pH above 7.45 is said to be _______ Alkalosis
What three systems or organs regulate blood pH on a minute–by–minute basis? A buffer system, the lungs, and the kidneys
The ability to perform work is known as ________ Energy
Name the six forms of energy Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, Radiant, Thermal, and Nuclear
Energy that causes movement is _______ energy Mechanical
Energy stored in chemical bonds is ______ energy Chemical
Energy released from the movement of charged particles is _____ energy Electrical
Energy that travels in waves is called _______ energy Radiant
Energy transferred because of a temperature difference is called ______ energy Thermal
Energy released during the decay of radioactive substances such as isotopes is called ______ energy Nuclear
An isotope is formed by adding what to the nucleus of an atom? Neutron(s)
The energy transfer molecule of the human body is ______ Adenosine triphosphate; ATP
A combination of two or more substances that can be separated by ordinary physical means and when separated retain their original properties are called a ________ Mixture
If particles in a mixture remain evenly distributed in the fluid it is called a ________ Solution
A solution has two parts. What are those parts? Solute and solvent
The substance in a solution that is present in the smallest amount is called the _______ Solute
The substance in a solution that is present in the greater amount is called the _______ Solvent
If water is the solvent, the solution is called a/an ________ solution Aqueous
If alcohol is the solvent, the solution is called a/an ________ Tincture
If one has a mixture in which the particles are large and tend to settle to the bottom unless the mixture is shaken it is called a _________ Suspension
If the particles do not dissolve, but they are so small that they remain suspended within the liquid, even when not being shaken this is called a __________ suspension Colloidal
Created by: joniparson1
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