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Biology lap 9

What is cryptic coloration? Color or pattern resembles background environment of the organism
What is camoflague/color change? Changing color to match the environment
What is hide in plain sight? Body shape resembles something in the environment
What is warning coloration? Striking coloration that warns off other animals, used as a threat.
What is mimicry? Non-dangerous organism develops color or pattern of a more dangerous organism
What is evolution (new definition)? Change of the allelic frequency in a gene pool over time.
What is a gene pool? All of the genes in a breeding population.
What does natural selection act on? Acts upon phenotypic variation present in the population
What is stabilizing selection? Individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
What is disruptive selection? Type of selection that acts against organisms of an intermediate type
What is directional selection? Type of selection that acts against organisms at one end of the curve - shifting the curve in one direction.
What is genetic drift? The frequency of alleles within a gene pool change by a chance event rather than by natural selection (environmental pressures).
What types of populations are usually most effected by genetic drift? Small populations
What is the founder effect? Allele frequencies change as the result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
What is the bottleneck effect? Change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population
What causes evolution to occur? Genetic variations caused by DNA mutations and new gene combinations brought about by sexual reproduction
What is a species? Species are able to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
What is the first thing that must happen in order for a new species to develop? Reproductive isolation
What three types of isolation lead to reproduction isolation? Geographical Isolation Behavioral isolation Temporal isolation
What is temporal isolation? When sexual receptiveness of two species occurs at different times they are not likely to mate: seasons of the year, time of day. An example could be three species of orchids in the rain forest releasing pollen at different times
What is geographic isolation? Geographic isolation is when two species are physically separated by a natural barrier of some sort such as a river, mountain, ocean, construction of new road and therefore can not reach each other to mate.
What behavioral isolation? The courting rituals of two species has diverged so much that the male's courting behaviors don't impress the female. They are foreign to her. She will not mate with him.
What was the early Earth's atmosphere like? Hot, volcanic, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen, ammonia, methane, no oceans as it was too hot for water to be in liquid form.
What progression of lifeforms occurred during the Precambrian Time? During this time, living things, simple anaerobes, photosynthesis, aerobic organisms, eukaryotes, and multi-celled sea-life all emerged.
What are the main characteristics of the Paleozoic Era? The Cambrian explosion occurred and resulted in very diverse marine life. Plants and animals began to move onto land and forests began to develop.
What are the main characteristics of the Mesozoic Era? It was the age of the reptiles – dinosaurs ruled. Birds evolved and flowering plants came into being. This era ended with a mass extinction due a large meteor strike causing a mass extinction.
What are the main characteristics of the Cenozoic Era? It was the age of the mammals, the age when humans appeared on the scene!
What is a mass extinction? It is the sudden disappearance of many species at the same time usually due to drastic environmental changes.
What does mass extinction lead to? Generally leads to adaptive radiation due to organisms moving into empty niches
What percentage of species are extinct? More than 99% of all the species that ever lived are now extinct.
What did Miller and Urey’s experiment reveal? That, by reproducing the earth’s early environment as best they could, they were able to produce organic molecules such as amino acids, lactic acid, acetic acid, adenine, cytosine, uracil, and ATP out of inorganic molecules.
What is spontaneous generation? The belief that living things could spring from non-living things. For example, meat produced maggots, mud produced eels, wheat and dirty rags produced mice.
Describe Francesco Redi's experiment disproving spontaneous generation? Redi put meat in two containers, but only sealed one. The container that was not sealed eventually had maggots but the sealed container with meat did not thus showing that the maggots came from outside the meat.
Describe Needham and Spallanzani's experiments disproving spontaneous generation of bacteria and microorganisms? Needham boiled gravy, sealed jars, microbes grew Spallanzani boiled gravy, sealed jars, no microbes grew Needham didn't really seal his jar because he thought that it was necessary to have air.
Describe Louis Pasteur's experiment disproving spontaneous generation of bacteria and microorganisms? Using a swan-necked flask, Pasteur boiled broth and left it on his lab bench for a year. The broth never got contaminated. He broke off the swan-neck and shortly thereafter, the broth became contaminated.
What is the theory of biogenesis? At the present time and under present conditions on the earth, all living things come from other living things.
What is the current hypothesis about how life began? Proteinoid microspheres were a precursor for the modern cell membrane. RNA then DNA evolved and, along with enzymes, worked best within the spheres. Then the prokaryotes evolved from that...
What is a proteinoid microsphere? Proteinoid microspheres are made from large organic molecules that have selectively permeable membranes, store and release energy, and are "cell-like" or proto-cells.
What was the evidence and when do we know prokaryotes were on the earth? There is fossil evidence of prokaryotes (bacteria) from 3.8 billion years ago
What is the Endosymbiotic Theory? Prokaryotic symbiosis led to eukaryotic cell organelles.ex: mitochondria and chloroplasts were their own organisms ; formed a symbiotic relationship with prokaryotic cells. prokaryotic cells living in a community -> eukaryotic cells.
What is the proof supporting the Endosymbiotic Theory? Lynn Margulis > mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA and ribosomes similar to bacterial forms, pointing out that they reproduce by binary fission, similar to bacteria; scoffed atbut proved correct after DNA analysis became available.
What is the meteorite impact hypothesis? Put forth by Walter and Luis Alvarez, it is the hypothesis that 65 mya a meteorite hit the earth causing a mass extinction that ended the age of the dinosaurs.
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What does mass extinction lead to? Mass extinction results in many open niches. Unaffected organisms spread out into the empty niches and usually evolve new adaptations (adaptive radiation) to become the fittest they can in their new niches.
What is adaptive radiation/divergent evolution? One species evolves into several different forms. Common ancestors (and homologous structures) are evidence of adaptive radiation or divergent evolution.
What is an ex of radiation/divergent evolution? the human arm, dog foreleg, bat wing and whale fin all have the same underlying bone structure but have adapted to grasp, walk, fly, and swim.
What is convergent evolution? It is when unrelated species adopt similar strategies to solve a similar problem. Analogous structures are evidence of convergent evolution.
An ex of analogous structures and convergent evolution? For example, the icthyosauous, whale, shark, and penguin all have fin-like structures to propel them through the water but are different species (reptile, bird, fish, and mammal).
What is gradualism? Gradualism is the idea put forth by Darwin the living thing evolve at a slow and steady rate – just like the earth.
What is punctuated equilibrium? It is the idea that evolution occurs in spurts followed by long periods of equilibrium, after mass extinctions organisms rush into the open niches and evolve until they are most fit, then they don’t evolve much because there is no need to.
What is a hominid? Human-like organisms that walk on two feet, eat plants and animals, and have relatively large brains compare to their body.
What is the first known species that led to today’s Homo sapiens sapiens (that’s us) after the split with the chimpanzees?? Ardipithecus
What is the oldest species that lead to today's homo sapiens? Ardipithecus
What was the significance of Donald Johanson’s discovery of “Lucy” in 1974? 1974, Johanson discovered a 3.2 million-year-old fossil of a female skeleton in Ethiopia that would forever change our understanding of human origins. Dubbed Australopithecus afarensis, she became known to the world as Lucy.
What was the significance of Donald Johanson’s discovery of “Lucy” in 1974? Lucy is the common name of AL 288-1, several hundred pieces of bone fossils representing 40 percent of the skeleton of a female of the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis. The name came from the Beatles‘s song – Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.
What changes in human anatomy were brought about by walking on two feet? Our legs got longer and our arms got shorter, the angle that our spine enters our skull changed, our toes aligned with the other toes and our legs straighten up.
What changes in human anatomy were brought about by walking on two feet? Our hips changed as our center of gravity changed resulting in a narrower birth canal for humans. This resulted in shorter gestational periods so that younger, smaller organisms were more safely birthed. led to longer periods of post-natal parental care.
Essay: Identify spontaneous generation and describe one of the experiments. The belief that living things could spring from non-living things. For example, meat produced maggots, mud produced eels, wheat and dirty rags produced mice. Redi put meat in two containers, but only sealed one. The container that was not sealed eventual
Essay: Why is extinction necessary for life and compare the old versus new views of dinosaurs? Gives the Earth history and stages to Earth's history Makes room for new species to evolve. Old paleontologist first viewed dinosaurs as slow, cold-blooded, stupid, lived in swamps, like reptiles. New paleontologist see them more as lively and warm-bloode
species Members of a closed gene pool
Directional Selection Higher fitness at 1 end of curve
Stabilizing Selection Higher fitness in middle of curve
Disruptive Selection Higher fitness at both ends of curve
Niche Role in the environment plus habitat
Adaptation Genetically controlled trait that increases fitness
how old is the earth 4.6 bya
extinct species that have died out
layers of rock fossils are typically found in? sedimentary
paleontologists scientists who study fossils
fossil record total collection of fossils on earth
index fossil distinctive fossils used to establish and date ages of rock layers
half life the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
where did the water in the Earth's oceans probably come from? water vapor from volcanoes
which gas is most abundant in earth's atmosphere today? nitrogen
radiometric dating a technique for determining the actual age of a fossil
what do Proto cells do Grow, reproduce and break down glucose
what did Proto cells eventually develop into DNA and RNA and evolved into living cells
Heterotrophic have to ___ eat
being Unicellular means that reproduction is complex
what era did the " Great dying" end Paleozoic Era
Mesozoic Era Age of Reptiles
Proteinoid microspheres Large organic molecules/Selectively permeable membranes/Store and release energy/"Proto-cells"
warning coloration A poison dart frog
color change Changing color to match the environment
cryptic coloration Color or pattern resembles background environment
hide in plain sight Organism resembles something else in the environment
Precambrian Time Lasted 4 billion years
What were the characteristics of first life? Prokaryotic, heterotrophic, anaerobic, unicellular
mitochondrial eve The hypothesis that all humans come out of africa
why does Stephan jay Gould believe extinction is a necessary part of life? we can tell time from their fossils/ it makes room for new organisms
Precambrian Time Time that saw the evolution of simple anaerobes, aerobic organisms, eukaryotes and multi-celled sea-life
Created by: fikott1