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Biology 10B Ch. 9-10

Cellular Growth, Cell Cycle, and Miosis

Stage in which the cell divides into two daughter cells with identical nuclei Cytokinesis
Substage of interphase immediately after a cell divides Gap 1
Substage of interphase in which the cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division Synthesis
Stage in which the cell's nuclear material divides and separates Mitosis
Main stage in which the cell grows, carries out normal functions, and duplicates its DNA Interphase
Substage in which the cell prepares for nuclear division and a protein that makes microtubles for cell division is synthesized Gap 2
The cell grows. DNA is duplicated. Interphase
Chromosomes condense. The Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear. Spindle apparatus forms. Prophase
Sister chromatids line up at equator. Metaphase
Chromatids are pulled apart toward the poles. Anaphase
Chromosomes arrive at poles. Nuclear membranes and nucleolus reappear. Chromosomes decondense. Telophase
Cell divides. Two cells are formed. Cytokinesis
4 reasons cells divide. To grow, repair, reproduce, and so they don't get too big
The uncontrolled growth and division of cells Cancer
2 Identical strands of DNA Chromatids (Sister Chromatids)
Connects 2 sister chromatids Centromere
A segment for a chromosome that carries information for a protein for a specific trait Gene
Location in a gene; its "Address" on a chromosomes Locus
Cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes Diploid cells (2n)
Contain only a single set of chromosomes Haploid cells (n)
Sex cells and contain half the number of chromosomes (n) as somatic (body) cells Gametes
Chromosomal segments are exchanged between a pair of homologous chromosomes Crossing over
type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and produces four gamete cells. This process is required to produce egg and sperm cells for sexual reproduction. Meiosis I
First stage of Meiosis I; Homologous chromosomes condense and form pairs during synapsis; spindle fibers form Prophase I
Second stage of Meiosis I; Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the cell's equator Metaphase I
Third stage of Meiosis I; Homologous chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell Anaphase I
Forth stage of Meiosis I; Homologous chromosomes reach the cell's poles and cytokinesis usually occurs Telophase I
First stage of Meiosis II; Spindle apparatus form; chromosomes condense Prophase II
Second stage of Meiosis II; Chromosomes line up at the cell's equator Metaphase II
Third stage of Meiosis II; Sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite ends of the cell Anaphase II
Forth stage of Meiosis II; Chromosomes reach the cell's poles, the nuclear membrane and nucleolus re-form, and cytokinesis occurs; four cells form Telophase II
The second of the two consecutive divisions of the nucleus during meiosis Meiosis II
Created by: Danceman8