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Digestive system

TermDefinition
Ingestion Taking food into your tube; eating or drinking
Chemical Digestion Break down of food using acids and/or enzymes
Mechanical Digestion Break down of food using a physical means like cutting or grinding
Oral cavity Digestion begins
Teeth cutting and grinding. The more you chew, the easier your food is to digest.
Tongue it functions to keep food between teeth
Salivary glands chemical digestion of simple sugars; moistens food to make a bolus
Mucous membrane absorbs digested carbohydrates, simple carbs go right into blood stream
Hard Palate roof of your mouth, the anterior hard part. The mold to form the bolus
Bolus the ball of food, partially chemically and mechanically digested, that gets swallowed.
Pharynx the throat, where air from sinuses crosses anteriorly to go into the trachea and food crosses to the posterior to go into the esophagus. Also houses the tonsils and the adenoids (immune system)
Uvula (the punching bag) helps to trigger the swallowing reflex when the bolus stretches it backward
Epiglottis (the trap door) triggered by the swallowing reflex, it swings down to cover the top of the Trachea. It keeps food out of the respiratory tract unless the swallowing reflex failed.
Trachea Part of the respiratory system; air is free to travel into the trachea and esophagus during inhalation
Esophagus tube the connects the pharynx to the stomach; it moves your food from the top of the thoracic cavity, through the diaphragm and into your abdominal cavity. It is surrounded by smooth muscle. Peristalsis can move the food up, down, or sideways.
Cardiac Sphincter Opens to let food in; closes to keep food in and prevent any splashing of acid back up into the esophagus
Swallowing reflex stage 1 Epiglottis swings shut over the top of the trachea
Swallowing reflex stage 2 Peristalsis starts. A wavelike motion from the top of the esophagus to the bottom (stomach)
Swallowing reflex stage 3 Cardiac sphincter opens to let food into the stomach
Stomach Surrounded by smooth muscle to churn the food (mechanical digestion)
gastric pits line the stomach, they release acids and digestive enzymes (chemical digestion)
Different gastric pits Release different chemicals. By themselves the do not digest the pit itself, but when these chemicals combine they produce a wicked brew. Frequent vomiting can eat away the esophagus, mucous membranes and your precious tooth enamel.
Mucous Membranes Line and protect the stomach wall. You don't digest yourself unless you have a break in the mucous protection. Cells in the mucous membrane are replaced rapidly. Drugs and alcohol are examples. repair begins immediately as long as it doesn't happen often.
Stomach purpse mechanical and chemical digestion and absorption of drugs, alcohol, and water
Chyme pH of 2. Soup like mixture of food and digestive chemicals all stirred up
Pyloric sphincter At "bottom" of stomach. Squeezes shut to keep food in the stomach, opens to squirt chyme into the duodenum.
Food groups: 1 Carbohydrates complex carbs-AKA fiber. Simple carbs-AKA sugar
Food groups: 2 Fats AKA lipids. Fatty acids are an important nutrient- necessary to build cell parts
Food groups: 3 Proteins source of amino acids to build your own proteins. Found in meat, milk, veggies, fruit, and nuts.
Peristalsis The rhythmic/wave like contraction of the smooth muscles that line you whole tube. Important to keep things moving along.
Small intestine Divided into 3 parts, primarily for their function. The Duodenum, the Jejunum, and the Ileum. Chemical digestion and absorption happen here.
Duodenum First foot of SI. Lined with glands that release digestive enzymes. Liver and pancreas have ducts that connect with Duodenum, dump digestive enzymes. Pancreas also adds solution that neutralizes stomach acids. No absorption of nutrients here.
Jejunum Long section, as food moves through here, there is time for it to be chemically digested. No new digestive enzymes added. Absorption only if the food particles have become small enough to cross intestinal wall.
Ileum This sections purpose is absorption. Absorption of food is across Villi. No new enzymes are added. Food that is in your tube is not in your body until it is absorbed into your blood, it is still "outside"
Villi Fingerlike projections into the jejunum and ileum that absorb digested food molecules, and add the nutrients to the body's blood stream.
Appendix Pocket (1/2 of the top of the capital letter T. "T" is how the small intestine joins the large intestine. Thought to be an evolutionary leftover from our ancestral species.
Large intestine Function: absorb water, vitamins and minerals. No food nutrients are absorbed here. 3 sections: Ascending-Transverse-Descending. AKA colon or bowel, therefore, a bowel movement means releasing waste.
Rectum storage area for waste, you get a signal from the brain when it is full, time to dump
Anal Sphincter keeps waste in until time to void. Ring muscle
Accessory Organs not part of the tube, but are connected to it, aid in, and are part of digestion
Pancreas produces digestive enzymes (dumped into Duodenum). Also produces insulin to be put into blood
Liver Produces bile(stored in gall bladder and dumped into Duodenum). Also manages energy molecules by turning simple sugars in blood into glycogen (body's pep pills). It also detoxifies poisons. It is a health club and detox center all in one. VERY IMPORTANT
Gall Bladder sac tucked under the liver; stores bile
Common bile duct duct from liver that carries bile AND from the pancreas that carries digestive enzymes.
Intestinal glands line the duodenum; produce digestive enzymes
Capillary bed in villi small blood vessels that pick up digested food molecules and add to the blood stream
Insulin "regulator" molecule. "tells" the cell membrane pores to accept sugar from the blood stream
more insulin faster uptake of sugar into cells; therefore it regulates blood sugar level.
Brain is constantly monitoring the digestive organs and the amount of food in the blood. Tells the body organs what to do, based on feedback from the monitoring. Maintains Homeostasis.
Circulatory system picks up the digested nutrients in the villi and delivers them to the rest of the body.
Created by: kampsdan20