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Chapter 15.2

Evidence of Evolution

What is the theory of evolution all organisms on Earth have descended from a common ancestor
What fossil record shows about evolutionary change( give 2 things( * ancient species can be similar to current species ( the glyptodon an extinct species is similar to an armadillos... you can look at this at Morrill hall)... some species have remained unchanged ...we can see ancestry and patterns of evolution
what is a transitional fossil ... give a good example that starts with an A fossils intermediate in form between species they contain features shared by different species... Archaeopteryx
describe the Archaeopteryx one of the first birds.. has characteristics that classify it as a bird and also show that bird retained several distinct dinosaur features ...
In a transitional fossils... there are derived traits and ancestral traits... explain briefly derived trait= newly evolved features that don't appear in the fossils of common ancestors... ancestral traits= more primitive features that are in the ancestral forms
Structures in organisms that are similar in construction but may have a different function.. This indicates a common ancestor homologous structures
What does Evolution predict about an organism's body parts an organism's body parts are more likely to be modification of ancestral body parts than they are to be entirely new features
Sometimes the functioning structure in one species is SMALLER OR LESS FUNCTIONAL in a closely related species. ( this is a homologous structure ... but is called ? VESTIGIAL ( this also gives evidence of common ancestry)
What does evolution predict about structures of ancestors that no longer have a function for the species these structures will become smaller over time until they are lost
Give examples of vestigial structures ...listed in our textbook * a snake pelvis ( attachment for legs)snakes don't have legs * kiwi wings or flightless Cormorant wings ( small wings on birds that do not fly) * human appendix--- important for digestion in many mammals but limited use in humans and some apes
structures that are used for the same purpose but are not constructed in the same way or with the same materials.. the wing of an eagle and the wing of a beetle are a good example ( wind of eagle has bones... beetle does not have bones) Analogous structure
Name two anatomical structures that can indicate common ancestors homologous structures and vestigial structures
What do analogous structures show about evolution THEY DO NOT INDICATE CLOSE EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS... but do show that functionally similar structures can evolve in similar environments ( independently)
Name three types of science that provide a glimpse into evolutionary relationships.... hint comparative Comparative anatomy , Comparative embryology, and comparative biochemistry
What do shared features in the embryos of vertebrates say about their evolution the adult forms of vertebrates differ ... but the shared features of embryos suggest that they evolved from a shared ancestor
What is comparative biochemistry comparative biochemistry is the study of biomolecules in different organisms to see how similar they are... Proteins and DNA may be compared to see difference in amino acid sequences or nitrogen bases..
What does comparative biochemistry say about evolutionary relationships the more closely related the species are, the greater number of sequences or bases will be shared and the molecules will be more similar
What is true about organisms with similar structural features when you compare their molecular features... they should also have closely related molecules such as DNA or proteins
What does the fact that many organisms have the same complex molecules suggest about their evolution those molecules probably evolved very early in the history of life and were passed on through the life-forms that have lived on Earth
Give a list of 4 categories that provide evidence for evolution Fossils, Comparative anatomy, Comparative embryology, and Comparative biochemistry
Which of the following was NOT used by darwin as evidence for evolution ( fossils, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology , comparative biochemistry) comparative biochemistry... it was not well developed in his time
What makes the evidence for evolution more convincing when it is supported by many pieces of evidence... evolution is supported by fossil evidence, comparative anatomy evidence, comparative embryology and biochemistry
Created by: shemehl