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Section 14.2

Origin of Life and Cellular Evolution

QuestionAnswer
What links the 3 domains of life ( Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya) a common ancestor
Possible location for origin of life ( newer idea ) Hydrothermal Vents
What is likely source of some of the organic molecules that may have been important in the origin of life meteorites
First Fossil evidence of life... # of years ago 3.5 bya
When some rocks show chemical evidence of life w/o fossils 3.8 bya
Location of some of the first fossil evidence of life ( give two different places) Stomatolites ( in oceans) and fossils in volcanic rock (fossils are normally found in sedimentary rock)
organisms associated with stomatolites cyanobacteria
One very important contribution of cyanobacteria they did photosynthesis and produced oxygen which eventually accumulated in the atmosphere
Type of cell that is found in Archaea and Cyanobacteria prokaryotic
What is missing from a prokaryotic cell Nucleus bound in a membrane and organelles bound in membranes
What do all cells have in common ribosomes ( to make protein) , plasma membrane, DNA ( genetic material) and cytoplasm
What do fossils in volcanic rock suggest about the first life on earth cell activity was early in the earth history while the earth was still very volcanic and molten in the process of cooling. Life may have originated in volcanic environments such as hydrothermal vents
What is true about the habitat of Archaea they live in extreme environments such as hot springs, ocean vents ( also very salty environments and anaerobic locations like the bottoms of swamps or in intestines ... they make methane)
Explain how Archaea get their nourishment they are autotrophs but not photoautotrophs ( no photosynthesis) ... they do chemosynthesis ( use chemicals).
On the timeline of Earth... when did oxygen accumulate in the atmosphere ..... this led the way for the development of ? 1.8 bya .... lead way to the development of eukaryotes
What type of cells have a nucleus with a membrane(DNA is located in the nucleus in structures called chromosomes)... also has membrane bound organelles... and can exist as unicellular or multicellular cells Eukaryotic cells
Which organisms have eukaryotic cells ( name 4 groups) Plant, Animal, Fungi, and Protist
Oxygen joined together as 3 atoms ( O3) to make ? to protect from ? radiation ozone.... UV
function of mitochondria and chloroplast two membrane bound organelles in eukaryotic cells mitochondria do cellular respiration (turning food into ATP to make usable energy)... chloroplasts do photosynthesis ( storing light energy as food)
How are mitochondria and chloroplasts like a prokaryote they are about the same size, have their own DNA, have similar ribosomes, and can reproduce by splitting in half...
What is the endosymbiont theory it explain how prokaryotes may have evolved into eukaryotic cells... separate prokaryotic cells joined in a symbiotic relationship where they both benefited. Eventually the internal bacteria was passed on from generation to generation
Created by: shemehl