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Ch. 1-12

Human Health & Disease

Integumentary (Skin) System Separate body system. System includes the functions of the hair, nail, sweat and oil glands.
Skeletal System 206 bones and the joints between them make up this system
Muscular system The muscles are attached to the bone which moves the skeleton. Give the body structure, protect organs and maintain posture
Nervous System - Made up of the brain, spinal cord and the nerves controls and coordinates the body. The five senses come from the outside and send messages to the brain.
Endocrine System - Scattered organs (endocrine glands) make up this system Endocrine glands include the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands.
Cardiovascular System Made up of the heart and blood vessels, which pumps blood through the entire body and carries waste materials away from tissues to places they can be disposed of.
Lymphatic System helps by bringing fluids from the tissues back to the blood. Includes tonsils, spleen and thymus gland. The cardiovascular and lymphatic system make up the circulatory system.
Respiratory System includes the lungs and the passages that go to and from the lungs. Oxygen is passed from the air to the blood and is then carried to all tissues by the cardiovascular system
Digestive System Includes all organs that take in nutrients converting them in ways that they can be used. Includes mouth, stomach, liver, pancreas, intestine, and esophagus
Urinary System Rids body of waste and excess water
Reproductive System Made up of external sex organs and their related internal structures to produce offspring.
Define metabolism and name the two phases of metabolism Chemical process that occurs in living organism in order to maintain life. The two phases of metabolism are catabolism and anabolism
Briefly explain the role of ATP in the body energy obtained from the breakdown of nutrients used to form a compound
homeostasis Steady state within an organism
Compare negative feedback and positive feedback Negative feedback- result of an action reverses the action Positive feedback- given action promotes more of the same.
Describe the structure of an atom At the center of an atom is a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons. Together the protons and neutrons make up nearly all the weight of the atom.
Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds Ionic bonds- electrons are transferred from one atom to another Covalent bonds- electrons are shared between the atoms.
electrolyte Compounds formed by ionic bonds that release ions when they are in a solution
Acid- Chemical substance capable of donating a hydrogen ion to another substance
Base Chemical substance usually containing a hydroxide ion that can accept a hydrogen ion
Salt Reaction between an acid and a base.
Explain the numbers on a pH scale The numbers on a pH scale range from 0 to 14, a pH of 7 is considered neutral 0 is the most acidic and 14 is the most basic.
Define radioactivity and cite several examples of how radioactive substances are used in medicine Radioactive- Isotopes that disintegrate and give off rays of atomic particles. Radiation, X-rays, PET scans, and CT scans
List 3 characteristics of organic compounds All contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen as their main ingredients
Name the 3 main types of organic compounds, their building blocks, and list their main functions in the body Carbohydrates- Important sources of energy in the diet. Lipids- found in the body as fat which provide insulation for the body and protect the organs Proteins- Structural material of the body found in muscle, bone, and connective tissue.
Define enzyme Proteins that are essential for metabolism. serve as catalysts for the endless amount of reactions that take place within a cell,speed the rate of chemical reactions metabolism would not occur at a fast enough rate to sustain life.
Type 1 of 3 RNA: Messenger RNA (mRNA) Is built on a strand of DNA in the nucleus and transcribes the nucleotide code. Moves to cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome.
Type 2 of 3 RNA: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) With proteins make up the ribosomes, the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. Involved in the process of translating the genetic message into a protein.
Type 3 of 3 RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA) Works with other forms of RNA to translate the genetic code into protein. Each molecule of tRNA carries an amino acid that can be used to build a protein at the ribosome.
Explain what happens to cells placed in an isotonic solution Isotonic- Has the same concentration of dissolved substances as the fluid in the cell. Isotonic solutions have no effect on the cell. The cell is in equilibrium with its environment.
Explain what happens to cells placed in a hypotonic solution Hypotonic- Has a lower concentration of dissolved substances than the fluid in the cell. Cells take in water, swell and may burst. Red blood cells undergo hemolysis.
Explain what happens to cells placed in a hypertonic solution Hypertonic- Has a higher concentration of dissolved substances than the fluid in the cell. Hypertonic solutions will cause the cell to lose water and shrink. The cell undergoes crenation.
Define cancer and list several risk factors for cancer Cancer cells form tumors which interfere with normal functions, crowding out normal cells and robbing them of nutrients. Some of the risk factors for cancer are, hereditary, chemicals, ionizing radiation, physical irritation, diet, and viruses.
Name the four main types of tissues Epithelial tissue- covers surfaces lines cavities and forms glands Connective tissue- supports and forms the framework of all parts of the body Muscle tissue-contracts and produces movement Nervous tissue-conducts nerve impulses
Describe the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands Exocrine glands travel away from the gland to another organ, body cavity or body surface. Think oil tears and sweat. Whereas endocrine glands secrete right into the blood. The secretions are hormones. They can go into the thyroid and adrenal glands.
Give examples of liquid, soft, fibrous, and hard connective tissues Liquid- Blood and Lymph Soft- Membranes around blood vessels, organs, between muscles, under the skin and body fat. Fibrous- Collagen, tendons and ligaments. Hard- Cartilage and bone
Benign Tumors Not dangerous and do not spread, usually contained in one area. Can be harmful if grown within an organ or increase in size. Examples include papilloma such as a wart, adinoma, myoma and angioma.
Malignant Tumors Can cause death despite where they origin. They grow at a much rapid pace than benign cancer. Can spread throughout body through blood or lymph. Examples include carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma and leukemia.
Describe 3 traditional methods of treating cancer Surgery, Chemotherapy, and Radiation. Immunotherapy is a newer approach to cancer treatment
Define disease and list the 7 categories of disease Abnormality of the structure or function of a part, organ, or system. The 7 categories of disease are Infection, Degenerative Diseases, Nutritional Disorders, Metabolic Disorders, Immune Disorders, Neoplasms, and Psychiatric Disorders.
Explain methods by which microorganisms can be transferred from person to person Touching, shaking hands, kissing, or sexual intercourse.
1 of 4 types of organisms studied in microbiology Bacteria- single celled organisms unique bc their genetic material is not enclosed in a membrane, found everywhere and comprised of the largest groups of pathogens. Can cause damage by producing toxins and entering the body tissues to grow within them.
2 of 4 types of organisms studied in microbiology Viruses- extremely small and infectious agents that can multiply only within living cells, some examples include HIV, rhinovirus,
3 of 4 types of organisms studied in microbiology Fungi- group that includes yeast and molds plant like organisms single celled forms are yeast filamentous forms are molds. Some examples are athlete’s foot, and ringworm
4 of 4 types of organisms studied in microbiology Protozoa- single cell animal like organisms. Examples are malaria and giardia
Define and explain the value of normal flora Population of microorganisms that normally grows on or within our bodies, beneficial because they crowd out and prevent the growth of other harmful varieties of organisms.
Sterilization kills all living microbes, most common process in autoclave
Disinfection- any measure that kills all pathogens except spores but doesn’t necessarily kill all harmless microbes
Antisepsis process in which pathogens are not killed but are prevented from multiplying
Name and describe the layers of skin: Epidermis & Dermis Epidermis- the outermost portion which itself is subdivided into thin layers called strata. The epidermis is composed entirely of epithelial cells and contains no blood vessels.
Name and describe the layers of skin part 2: Epidermis & Dermis Dermis- or true skin which has a framework of connective tissue and contains many blood vessels, nerve endings, and glands.
Main functions of skin Protect against infection, dehydration, regulates boy temperatures and collect sensory information
Compact bone Compact bone- hard and dense this tissue makes up the main shaft of a long bone and the outer layer of other bones.
Spongy bone Spongy bone- has more spaces than compact bone, made up of a meshwork of small, bony plates filled with red marrow. Spongy bone is found at the ends of the long bone and at the center of other bones.
Differentiate between red and yellow marrow in terms of location and function Red marrow is found at the ends of the long bones and at the center of other bone. Red marrow manufactures blood cells. While yellow marrow is found primarily in the central cavities of the long bones, yellow marrow is composed largely of fat.
Describe how bones age There is a loss of calcium salts and a decrease in the amount of protein formed in bone tissue.
Describe the 3 types of joints Fibrous joints- immovable, no joint cavity. Fibrous connective tissue between bones. Cartilaginous joints- slightly movable, no joint cavity. Cartilage between bones Synovial joints- freely movable. Joint cavity containing synovial fluid
Smooth muscle- located in the walls of hollow organs, vessels, respiratory passageways. Tapered at each end, branching networks, nonstriated. It moves involuntarily. Produces peristalsis, contracts and relaxes slowly. May sustain contraction.
Cardiac muscle- also involuntary. Makes up the wall of the heart and creates the pulsing action of that organ. Pumps blood out of the heart. Self-excitatory but influenced by the nervous system and hormones.
Skeletal muscles- Heavily striated, very long and cylindrical have multiple nuclei per cell. The nervous system stimulates skeletal muscle to contract, and the tissue usually contracts and relaxes rapidly. Described as voluntary. Produces movement at the joints.
Define oxygen debt A person must continue to take in extra oxygen by continued rapid breathing until the debt is paid in full. Enough oxygen must be taken in to convert the lactic acid into other substances that can be metabolized further.
Myoglobin- stores additional oxygen. This compound is similar to the bloods hemoglobin but is located specifically in muscle cells.
Glycogen- stores additional glucose. It is a polysaccharide made of multiple glucose molecules and it can be broken down into glucose when needed by the muscle cells.
Creatine phosphate- stores energy. It is a compound similar to ATP in that it has a high energy bond that releases energy when it is broken. This energy is used to make ATP for muscle contraction when the muscle cell has used up its ATP.
What is the function of the meninges? The meninges are protective membranes around the brain and spinal cord.
Function of cerebral spinal fluid The function of cerebral spinal fluid is to support nervous tissue and to cushion shocks that would otherwise injure these delicate structures. CSF forms in four spaces within the brain called ventricles
Name the two divisions of the diencephalon Thalamus function: sort out impulses and direct them to particular areas of the cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus influences heartbeat, contraction and relaxation of blood vessels. Hormone secretion, and other vital body functions
Describe the function of the cerebellum. Help coordinate voluntary muscles to ensure smooth, orderly function; help maintain balance in standing, walking, and sitting to help maintain muscle tone so that all muscle fibers are slightly tensed and ready to produce changes in position asap
Differentiate between the rods and cones of the eye. The rods are highly sensitive to light and function in dim light but do not provide a sharp image. Rods shapes are cylindrical and cones are a flask shape. The cones function in bright light, are sensitive to color, and give sharp image
Describe the three divisions of the ear The outer ear includes an outer projection and canal ending at a membrane. The middle ear is an air space containing three small bones. The inner ear is the most complex and contains the sensory receptors for hearing and equilibrium
Define refraction and list the refractive parts of the eye. Refraction is the bending of light rays as they pass from one substance to another substance of different density. The refractive parts of the eye are the cornea, the aqueous humor, the lens, and the vitreous body
Describe the functions of hormones. Hormones from the endocrine gland are released directly into the bloodstream, which carries them to all parts of the body. They regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, and behavior.
How are hormones regulated The amount of each hormone that is secreted is normally kept within a specific range through negative feedback. In negative feedback the hormone itself controls further hormone secretion
Growth hormone- used for the treatment of children with a deficiency of this hormone. Also used to strengthen bones and build mass in the elderly.
Oxytocin- is used to cause contractions of the uterus and induce labor
Androgens- including testosterone and androsterone are used in severe chronic illness to aid tissue building and promote healing.
Estrogen & Progesterone- used as birth control to prevent pregnancy
Explain how the endocrine system responds to stress. During long term stress, such as starvation or prolonged anxiety, the endocrine system releases growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone) to restore homeostasis and prevent disease
Melatonin- regulates mood, sexual development, and daily cycles in response to the amount of light in the environment
Thymosin- promotes growth of T cells active in immunity
Aldosterone- aids in regulating electrolytes and water balance
Cortisol- aids in metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; active during stress
Parathyroid hormone- regulates exchange of calcium between blood and bones. Increases calcium level in blood
Thyroxine (T4) & triiodothyronine (T3) - increases metabolic rate influencing both physical and mental activities, required for normal growth
Antidiuretic hormone- promotes reabsorption of water in kidney tubules, at high concentration stimulates constriction of blood vessels
Luteinizing hormone & interstitial cell stimulating hormone- causes development of corpus luteum at site of ruptured ovarian follicle in females. Stimulates secretion of testosterone in males
Follicle stimulating hormone- stimulates growth and hormone activity of ovarian follicles, stimulates growth of testes, promotes development of sperm cells
Prolactin- stimulates secretion of milk by mammary glands
Adrenocorticotropic hormones- stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortical hormones, aids in protecting body in stress situations
Thyroid stimulating hormone- stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
Growth hormone- promotes growth of all body tissues
Compare the effects of the nervous system and endocrine system in controlling the body work to control and coordinate all other systems of the body. Nervous system controls rapid actions as muscle movement& intestinal activity by means of electrical&chemical stimuli. Effects of endocrine system occur slowly over a longer period.
Created by: desireee92



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