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Microbiology 3

Compare and Contrast Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes: Eukaryotes: Membrane bound organelles; large (80-100 micrometers); Single-Celled and Multicellular. Prokaryotes: No membrane-bound organelles; small (<10micrometers); Only Single-celled.
Are Protozoans eukaryotes or prokaryotes? Protozoans are Eukaryotes
Are bacteria prokaryotes or eukaryotes? Prokaryotes
Explain genetic organization in Prokaryotes: Genetic Material is in form of DNA. DNA is organized into singular circular chromosome located in nucleoid region. Genes are located on chromosomes and are codesfor proteins.
What are 3 aspects of Cellular Compartmentalization in Prokaryotes? Cytoplasm within the cell membrane; cell wall exterior to cell membrane; nucleoid is region with DNA.
Protein synthesis occurs where (in prokaryotes) and is catalyzed by what? In Prokaryotes, protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol and is catalyzed by ribosomes.
What is the difference in bacterial ribosomes and most eukaryotic ribosomes? Why is this important? Bacterial ribosomes are different (smaller) than eukaryotic ribosomes. This is important because we target bacterial ribosomes to kill cancer in chemotherapy.
What are 2 targets of chemotherapy? Bacterial ribosomes (because they are smaller than eukaryotes) and bacterial enzymes (they often have different enzymes)
How do prokaryotes utilize energy? Much like eukaryotes: oxidative phosphorylation.
What is oxidative phosphorylation and where does it occur in prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes? Aerobic (oxygen-requiring) synthesis of ATP (energy). Prokaryotes: occurs in cytosol. Eukaryotes: occurs in mitochondria. (enzymes found in mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes are found in plasma membrane of prokaryotes)
How is water balanced in cells? Via Osmosis across cell membrane.
What is an isotonic environment? Same solute concentration inside/outside cell.
What is a hypotonic environment? Will cell shrink or expand? Lower solute concentration outside cell (Cell will expand).
What is hypertonic environment? Will cell shrink or expand? Higher solute concentration outside cell (cell will shrink).
What function does cell wall serve in maintaining cell structure in hypotonic environment? It helps prevent lysis (explosion of cell) in hypotonic environment.
How do bacteria reproduce? Via binary fission with mitosis.
Are offspring of bacteria genetic clones or genetically different? Genetic clones.
What are 2 sources of genetic variability? Explain. Mutation (accidental change in DNA) and Conjugation (exchange of DNA between bacteria)
What are 2 theories of evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes? Invagination of plasma membrane (accounts for organelles like endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane). Endosymbiosis (accounts for mitochondria and chloroplasts).
What does the gram stain differentiate? If it is gram positive or gram negative - based on cell wall characteristics. (Positive is blue, negative is red)
What are physical characteristics to look at when identifying bacteria? Gram Stain, Morphology (shape: cocci, bacilli/rods, spiral), spore-forming, motility.
What are 3 biochemical tests to perform when identifying bacteria? 1) Based on ability to metabolize a particular chemical. 2) Citrate Test. 3) Lactose Test.
What are serological tests based on? Antigen- Antibody Reaction
What are Nucleic Acid tests based on? Genetic Makeup.
What are 3 types of staining techniques? 1) Simple Stain. 2) Negative Stain. 3) Differential Stain
Explain Simple Staining: Basic dye stains negatively charged bacteria. Heat fixation is required. (Methylene Blue)
Explain Negative Staining: Acidic (negative) dye is used. Leaves cell against a stained background and no heat fixation.
Explain Differential Stain: Differentiates between something. Gram staining: positive retains primary stain and appears blue/purple. Negative loses primary stain and retains secondary stain which is red/orange.
Created by: sham13



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