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Regulation

Nervous & Endocrine System

TermDefinition
Gland Release hormone directly into the bloodstream
Hormones products which deliver messages to body once they reach their target cell
Target cells have specific receptors for specific hormones
Pituitary Located in the brain and produces HGH and TSH.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) Regulates growth in the body
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Stimulates the thyroid to function
Hypothalamus Located in the brain, releases secretions that control the pituitary gland
Thyroid Located in the neck, produces the hormone Thyroxine
Thyroxine Regulates metabolism
Parathyroid Located embedded in the thyroid, produces parathormone
Parathormone Regulates calcium levels in the blood
Pancreas Located near the stomach and liver, produces insulin and glucagon
Insulin Regulates blood sugar when it too high
Glucagon Regulates blood sugar when it's too low
Ovaries Located near the uterus, produces estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen Produces secondary sex characteristics in females
Progesterone Regulates the menstrual cycle
Testes Located in the scrotum, produces testosterone
Testosterone Produces secondary sex characteristics in men
Goiter Enlargement of the thyroid due to a lack of iodine
Gigantism The overproduction of human growth hormone
Type 2 Diabetes Pancreas is not able to make properly enough Insulin for the boy, usually do to being overweight or poor diet
Type 1 Diabetes Pancreas inability to make Insulin, usually diagnosed at a young age
Nervous System A network of nerves and fibers that work together to send signals throughout the body
Central Nervous System (CNS) Comprised of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Comprised of all the neurons outside the CNS, such as sensory and motor neurons
Brain Body's main processing center that coordinates the body's ability to maintain homeostasis
Spinal Cord A column of nerves that connects the peripheral nervous system
Sensory Nerves Carry information to the CNS from the sense organs
Motor Nerves Carry commands from the CNS to the target muscle or organ
Autonomic Nerves that are not in the conscious control
Somatic Nerves that are under the conscious control
Neuron A specialized cell that can transmit a nerve impulse from one place to another throughout the entire body
Dendrites The fibers that direct incoming pulses to the cell body
Cyton / Cell Body Interrupts and directs incoming pulses
Axon Carries the impulses from the cyton to the terminal branches
Myelin Sheath Covered in a fatty coating over the axon
Terminal Branches The fibers that lead away from the axon to the dendrites of the next neurons
Synapse Space between the terminal branches of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron
Neurotransmitters A chemical substance that is secreted by the terminal branches
Nerve A bundle of neurons
Ganglion A bundle of nerves
Brain A complex bundle of ganglions
Reflex Arc A quick involuntary reaction to a stimuli
Stimulus Any change in the external or internal environment
Receptor Specialized neurons that pick up external stimuli
Sensory Neurons Gets information from the receptors, usually comes from one of the senses
Impulse The electrochemical signals that is created and travels across neurons
Interneuron Relay the message between the motor and sensory neurons
Motor Neuron The neurons that carry commands to the target muscle or organ
Effector Structures that produce a response from a stimuli, example muscles
Response A reaction an organism makes to a specific stimuli; a reflex is an uncontrolled response to a stimuli
Cerebrum it is responsible for sensory and nervous system functions, also voluntary activity in the body
Cerebellum Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
Medulla Controls and regulates involuntary functions
Cerebral Palsy A condition caused by damage to the brain before or at birth; causes impaired muscle coordination and speech issues
Meningitis An inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal
Polio A viral disease of the CNS that results in severe paralysis
Stroke A disorder when brain function is impaired or destroyed from lack of oxygen
Created by: CMacKay16