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Science

TermDefinition
Cell the smallest unit that can perform all life processes.
All organisms are made out of them Why are cells important?
Robert Hooke The first person to describe cells in 1665, shortly after the invention of the microscope.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek Scientist that made his own microscope, looked at pond scum, and saw small organisms in the water
Protists Single–celled organisms in the water. (pond scum)
1st Law All organisms are made of one or more cells
2nd Law The cell is the basic unit of all living things
3rd Law All cells come from existing cells
Membrane A protective layer that covers the cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of the cell and the cell's external environment. It also controls fluid going into and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm The fluid inside the cell
Organelles The small bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function.
Nucleus The command center of a eukaryotic cell. It contains the cell's DNA (the source code of life) and plays a major role in processes like growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
Prokaryote An organism that consists of a single cell that does not have a nucleus or membrane–bound organelles.
Bacteria The world's smallest cells and the most common type of prokaryotes. They live almost anywhere and have both DNA and a cell wall
Archaea Prokaryotes that have organelles that are similar to eukaryotes. They are able to live in extreme environments that other organisms could, like deep–sea volcanic vents.
Eukaryotes Organisms that are made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane. All living things that are not bacteria or archaea are made of one or more eukaryotic cells.
Cell Wall A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell. The ones in plant cells allow plants to stand upright.
Cell Membrane a protective barrier that encloses a cell. It contains proteins, lipids, and phospholipids.
Lipids Fat and cholesterol
Phospholipids Lipids that contain phosphorous
Cytoskeleton A web of proteins in the cytoplasm that acts as both a muscle and a skeleton. It keeps the cell's membranes from collapsing, and also helps some cells move.
Ribosomes Organelles that make proteins in the cells. They are the smallest of all organelles. All cells need protein to live, therefore all cells have these.
Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) a system of folded membranes that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
Golgi complex the organelle that packages and distributes proteins and lipids.
Vesicles small bubbles that surround material that is to be moved into, out of, or around a cell.
Mitochondrion "The _____ is the powerhouse of the cell! The double–membraned organelle in which sugar is broken down to produce energy.
Chloroplasts organelles in plant and algae cells in which photosynthesis takes place.
Lysosomes organelles that contain digestive enzymes and are responsible for digestion inside a cell. They destroy worn–out or damaged organelles, get rid of waste materials, and protect the cell from foreign invaders. These are found mainly in animal cells.
Vacuoles Large vesicles that act like large lysosomes in plant and fungal cells. They also store water and other liquids in plant cells
✓ I know three 'advantages' to being multicellular
Tissue A group of cells that work together to perform a specific job
Organ A structure that is made of two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function. (Remember; they do not always have to be made of the same type of tissue.)
Organ system a group of organs working together to perform a specific function.
Organism Anything that can perform life processes by itself
Structure The arrangement of parts in an organism. It includes the shape of a part and the material of which the part is made.
Function The job the part does.
Created by: Pinty220