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Chapter 4: Skin

What are the 2 layers of the skin? Epidermis and Dermis
Which is the outer, thinner layer? Epidermis
Which is the inner, thicker layer? Dermis
What is the epidermis composed of? Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium
In the epidermis, from deepest to most superficial, the cells pass through the layers in what order? 1. Stratum Basale 2. Stratum Spinosum 3. Stratum Granulosum 4. Stratum Lucidum 5. Stratum Corneum
Stratum Basale deepest layer, cell division occurs a single row of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes
Stratum Spinosum 8-10 rows, keratinocytes
Stratum Granulosum 3-5 rows of flattened keratinocytes, contain granules
Stratum Lucidum 3-4 rows, dead keratinocytes, thick skin only
Stratum Corneum 25-30 rows of dead keratinocytes with keratin, most keratin protein
Which stratum has the greatest amount of keratin protein? Stratum Corneum
Keratinocytes in the epidermis, produce keratin, provides protection
Merkel Cells in the epidermis, function in the sensation of touch along with adjacent tactile (Merkel Discs)
Langerhans Cells in the epidermis, involved with immune responses
Melanocytes in the epidermis, produce the pigment of melanin
Which stratum is found in the thick skin but not in the thin skin? Stratum Lucidum
Where does thick skin locate? palms soles fingertips
What are the 2 regions of the dermis? Superficial papillary region (areolar connective tissue) Deeper Reticular Region (dense irregular tissue)
What type of cells in the dermis? connective tissue, areolar connective tissue, collagen and elastic fibers, dermal papillae, corpuscles of touch, free nerve endings, dense irregular connective tissue, adipose cells
What are the dermal papillae and what do they contain? they stimulate hair growth they contain corpuscle of touch and free nerve endings
What make the skin to able to stretch and recoil? elastic fibers
3 pigments that are responsible for skin color? melanin carotene hemoglobin
What cells produce melanin? melanocytes
what causes Albinism? the defect of tyrosinase
What causes cyanosis? lack of oxygen
What are the functions of the integumentary system? protect the body, retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature, synthesis vitamin d
What 2 type of tissues make up the subcutaneous layer? adipose and areolar connective tissue
What is the commonest form of skin cancer? Basal Cell Carcinoma
What type of skin cancer is most likely to metastasize? Melanoma
Are skin color and family history considered as risk factors for skin cancer? yes
Melanomas ABCD characteristics rule A: Asymmetry, 2 sides of the pigmented area don't match B: border is irregular and exhibits indentations C: Color (pigmented area) is black, brown, tan, or red/blue D: Diameter is larger than 6mm (size of pencil eraser)
First degree burn only in epidermis, mild pain, ERYTHEMA, NO BLISTERS, skin functions remain intact
Second degree burn Destroys a portion of the epidermis and possible parts of the dermis, redness, BLISTERS, edema, pain, some functions lost
Third degree burn Destroys a portion of the epidermis, underlying dermis, and associated structures. most functions lost
Rule of Nines head/ neck: 9% anterior & posterior trunk: 18% x2 Upper limb: 9% x2 Lower limb: 18% x2 Perineum: 1%
Created by: _melgozacaroo15



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