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# GEOG 287 MidTerm

### COCC GIS Analysis Midterm

What are filters? Apply algorithmic functions to recalculate cell values based on type filter applied.
How are filters used for reclassification process? Apply algorithmic functions to recalculate cell values based on given inputs (edge detection, fragmentation, steepness of slope).
What’s the difference between static and roving window filters? *Static = Block Function (whole Neighborhood) *Roving = Focal Functions (looks at each Kernel makes an evaluation, and moves on to next Kernel)
What are higher-level objects? Important to the computer to understand x, y coordinates (Nodes). Importance for a future evaluation.
Give two examples of higher-level objects for each of the following feature classes: Points, Lines, Polygons *Points- Centroid, Node *Lines- Edge, Borders, Networks *Polygons- Regions (multi-part), Island
Explain why the analysis piece of GIS is often the most abused aspect and give an example to support your explanation. *People not applying the right tools or evaluating the data to know if outputs make sense. *An example is using Jenk’s Natural breaks as the default classification, although the data may not be normalized for natural breaks,
What is slope? Rate of Change as you move through space
How is slope implemented in a vector data model? Using TIN- Triangular irregular networks (TIN) functions
How is slope implemented in a raster data model? Using a Filter, roving window of the neighborhood.
What are Map Algebra functions? * Formulating command statements that perform cartographic analysis. Creates new grids * Raster Calculator tool contains the functions and is used to perform them
Name, explain and give an example of Local functions *Looks at single cell/kernel. The value in the output is contingent only on the input cell at that location. * An example: Highest Position (conditional finds the highest point)
Name, explain and give an example of Focal functions *Classifies per neighborhood. Output value results from neighborhood of the input. * An example is: Focal Statistics
Name, explain and give an example of Global functions *Evaluates the entire grid. *An example: high/low value
Name, explain and give an example of Block functions *Aggregates neighborhoods to evaluate a value as a block. Blocks don't overlap, value in block computed and written to all cells of the block. * Example Block Statistics-Mean (finds the mean of each neighborhood)
Name, explain and give an example of Zonal functions *Evaluates value Per zone. All output cells get the same value. *An example is Zonal Area
What are the four basic reasons used to define a buffer distance? (I.E. what drives you to establish a buffer distance of 50?) Describe them. * Arbitrary - random * Causative – function about what is going on, movement * Measureable – measuring out (or in) from a feature for informational purposes * Mandated – buffer given by organization
Provide two methods to measure dispersion of a set of data. Explain each. * Range = Highest – lowest value. Shows the spread of the values * Standard deviation = the average difference between frequencies
Give an example of a simple reclassification that aggregates two or more classes together into single class. * Reclassify slopes: 0-10 degrees = 1, 10-20 = 2, etc to a new value
What is intervisibility analysis? Determines what you can see from a location (cell)
What is a viewshed? Output of what you can see in intervisibility analysis
How does one calculate a viewshed in vector? Using TIN- Triangular irregular networks (TIN) functions
How does one calculate a viewshed in raster? Using the extended neighborhood function
Describe some uses of intervisibility analysis. LOS for fire watch tower, location of cell tower
What is the purpose of Euler numbers? To measure the degree of fragmentation as the amount of perforation
What factors influence a feature having a particular Euler number? Number of Holes and Fragments
Why is it important to be able to isolate, identify, count and separately tabulate and display individual items? First Steps in order to perform analysis
When measuring the distance between two features one could use âsimple distanceâ Explain what that means. Give Examples. Simple Distance (Euclidian) is a straight line, regardless of barriers or impedance, direction and cost. o Euclidean/isotropic o Straight line distance o Doesnât matter the direction you measure * No factors adding to cost of movement
When measuring the distance between two features one could use âFunctional distanceâ Explain what that means. Give examples. Functional Distance is a distance based on path, in one direction, with the least calculated cost. o Anisotropic o Measures in a specific direction o Least cost paths * Slope, friction, barriers, etc
What are some similarities and differences from simple and functional distance? *Similarities: Both try to determine a distance between two points. *Differences: Euclidian simple straight line regardless of barriers or impedance. Functional determines the best path best on cost inputs.
What is absolute frequency? Absolute values within a dataset
What is Relative frequency? Relative Frequency is the percentage of the values
What is/are the dimensions associated with points, lines and polygons? *Point-zero, none *Line-one, length *Poly- two, length and width
What are three different measurements you could make on a line feature? *Sinuosity *Length *Orientation
What are three different measurements you could make on a polygon feature? *Area *Perimeter *Angles
What is the main difference between an isotropic and an anisotropic surface? Direction. We use Isotropic (example walking up and down a hill, use same cost value)
What are the differences between a Bar Chart and a Histogram? Bar charts represent Qualitative categories not contiguous (touching bars) Histogram represents Quantitative Continuous Numeric values of a single category (Bars must touch)
Make sure to review graphic of categorical distribution types (was on test). *Top left-Natural Breaks *Top right- Algorithimic progression *Bottom left- Standard Deviation *Bottom right- Equal or Quantil Interval
Created by: Sevcav

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