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Water & energy budgt

For 330 Water and energy budgets, most from Chapin 2011

Albedo Fraction of the incident shortwave radiation reflected from a surface.
Diffuse radiation Shortwave radiation that is scattered by particles and gases in the atmosphere.
Direct radiation Radiation that comes directly from the sun without scattering or reradiation by the atmosphere or objects in the environment.
Evapotranspiration Water loss from an ecosystem by transpiration and surface evaporation; equivalent to latent heat flux, but expressed in water units.
Latent Heat Energy transferred between a surface and the atmosphere by the evaporation of water or the condensation of water vapor; equivalent to evapotranspiration, but expressed in energy units.
Latent heat flux Energy required to change a gram of a substance from a liquid to a vapor without change in temperature.
Longwave radiation Radiation with wavelengths of about 4–30 mm.
Net radiation Balance between the inputs and outputs of shortwave and longwave radiation.
Relative humidity Ratio of the actual amount of water held in the atmosphere compared to maximum that could be held at that temperature.
Saturation vapor pressure The maximum water vapor pressure contained in air for a given temperature; equivelent to dew point temperature.
Sensible heat flux Energy that is conducted from a warm surface to the air immediately above it and then moved upward to the bulk atmosphere by convection.
Shortwave radiation Radiation with wavelengths of about 0.2–4.0 mm, including ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared radiation.
Specific heat capacity Energy required to warm a gram of a substance by 1˚C.
Transpiration Water movement through stomata from plants to the atmosphere.
Turbulence Irregular velocities of air or water movement that can transport heat and materials much more rapidly than by diffusion.
Vapor pressure Partial pressure exerted by water molecules in the air.
Vapor pressure deficit Difference in actual vapor pressure and the vapor pressure in air of the same temperature and pressure that is saturated with water vapor.
Created by: mdcoleman