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Anatomy L4 (LJ)

College level notes on skeletal system

Cartilage A connective tissue made of cells, fibers and matrix. It is tough, resilient, avascular gel, capable of fast growth.
Hyaline cartilage Most common. Made of collagen fibers. Flexible and tough but yet the weakest. The matrix doesn't stain well so its almost transparent. (Ex: part of nasal septum, ribs, sternum, joint surfaces and developing bone.)
Elastic cartilage Elastin fibers. Darker under microscope. (Ex: external ear, tip of nose and alar cartilages and larynx.)
Fibrocartilage Densely inter-woven collagen fibers (Ex: pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks) Can absorb shock and resist compression. Very pink. Heals very poorly and slowly.
Ligament Connect bone to bone, cartilage to cartilage and bone to cartilage. Lots of elastic fibers and collagen fibers and is moderately stretchy.
Areolar CT Deep in the dermis, covered by epithelial lining of the digestive, respiratory and urinary tract between muscles and around blood vessels. Provides support but permits independent movement.
Adipose CT Deep in skin; side , buttocks, breasts and padding around eyes. Cushion shocks, insulates and stores energy.
Osteon Mature bone, made up of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes.
Lamellae Matrix layers
Lacuna(e) Osteocytes occupy lacunae (lakes) sandwiched between layers of matrix.
Canaliculi Channels that radiate through the matrix from lacuna to lacuna.
Haversian canal Central canal brings nutrients to bone.
Matrix Makes up most of connective tissue. Jobs: structural framework, transporting fluids and dissolving material, protecting delicate organs, interconnecting tissues.
Fibroblasts Avascular gel.
Chondroblast Turn into chondrocyte. Produce fibers and matrix. Trapped in lacunae.
Bone Is a connective tissue. Made of osteocytes, collagen fibers, calcium phosphate matrix. Dynamic living tissue: self-repair, adjusts to new loads. Stores calcium, fat and makes blood cells. Vascular: numerous blood vessels (transport) Innervated.
Functions of bone tissue STRUCTURAL SUPPORT for the entire body. STORAGE OF MINERALS (calcium) and lipids (fat). BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION (hematopoiesis). PROTECTION (rib cage, skull, spinal column). LEVERAGE (muscle attachment=movement)
Bone tissue has 4 types of bone cells FIBROBLASTS (undifferentiated), OSTEOBLASTS (produce new bone matrix), OSTEOCYTES (mature cells surrounded by their own matrix, cycle/recycle calcium levels in the bone matrix) OSTEOCLASTS (remove bone matrix (osteolysis))
Neurovascular NAVL (each produce each other) small nerve, artery, vein & lymphatic.
Long bone structure Diaphysis (tubular shaft), epiphysis (expanded area at the ends of bone), metaphysis (zone btw. diaphysis & epiphysis.
Long bone structure (cont.) Epiphyseal line ( remnant of metaphysis/ growth plate. Nutrient foramen (hole in diaphysis for blood vessel) medullary (marrow) cavity (cavity within diaphysis)
Yellow bone-marrow Contains fat cells
Red bone-marrow Contains blood cells (hematopoiesis)
Periosteum Membrane on external surface of the bone. Outer fibrous layer: muscle attachment. 2 active cell types reside btw bone and periosteum (osteoclasts remove bone, osteoblasts make bone)
Endosteum Membrane on inner walls of the medullary cavity. (single layer of epithelial cells, osteoclasts & osteoblasts sit btw bone & endosteum)
Vascular supply of bone NUTRIENT A/V: bone marrow in medullary cavity, METAPHYSEAL A/V: assoc. w/ metaphyses and epiphyses.
Compact bone Compact bone appears solid. Osteon is a functional unit, holes btw. lamellae (lacunae) filled w/ osteocytes. Osteocytes talk via canaliculi. Haversian canals carry n./a./v.'s through osteon. Perforating (Volkman's) canals carry n./a./v.'s btw. osteon.
Trabecular bone Appears 'spongy', this bone type is very strong for its weight. Haversian canals & osteons are modified/ reduced. Osteocytes & canaliculi are found throughout the trabeculae. Osteocytes get nutrition via diffusion from the bone marrow.
Diaphyses are typically made of compact bone. Epiphyses are typically made of trabecular bone.
Created by: 1037022213037652



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