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Biology Genetics

To help students prepare for genetics test over Punnett squares, etc.

QuestionAnswer
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in which excess mucus accumulates in the lungs and digestive system of affected individ. Males and females must inherit 2 alleles with this mutation to have the disease. What is the mode of inheritance? autosomal recessive
Describe phenotype The physical characteristics of an organism
Describe genotype The alleles (letters) that are passed from parents to offspring
What are the sources for genetic variation during meiosis? crossing over, independent assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes, and random fertilization of gametes
The manner in which chromosomes separate into gametes during meiosis is the molecular mechanism behind which of Mendel's laws? Both the law of independent assortment and the law of segregation.
If 2 individuals who are dominant for a gene have a child who shows the recessive trait for a gene, what is the genotype of the parents? Both parents are heterozygous
Describe a dominant trait. allele that is expressed whenever it is present (1 or 2 copies).
Meiosis is divided into how many parts? 2; Meiosis I and Meiosis II
If Tall is dominant to short, and yellow is dominant to green, what is the phenotype of TtYy? tall with yellow peas
What is the genotypic ratio of a homozygous dominant and heterozygous monohybrid cross? 1:1
What would happen if meiosis did not occur? chromosome number would double in each generation
What occurs during anaphase I of meisosis? Homologous chromosomes separate and move towards the poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres, unlike anaphase in mitosis
What occurs during metaphase I of meiosis? Paired homologous chromosomes line up along the cell's equator
What is the sequence of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is the genotypic ratio of a heterozygous x heterozygous monohybrid cross? 1:2:1
If you are told that blue eyes is recessive, how would you write a homozygous recessive trait? tt (2 little letters)
Describe homozygous •two of the same alleles for a particular gene
Describe heterozygous two different alleles for a particular gene
If you cross 2 individuals who are heterozygous (Bb) what genotypes will you get? BB, Bb, and bb
Describe anaphase II. sister chromatids separate and move to opposites poles of the cell.
What does "true breeding mean" genetically pure lines
Describe telophase II. the nuclear membranes form again around the chromosomes, the spindle fibers break apart, and the cell undergoes cytokinesis.
Describe Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment. allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation. When you are dealing with 2 or more traits, then this
An individual with the genotype AaBb is crossed with genotype AaBb. What is the percent chance their offspring will have genotype AaBb? 25%
What would be the predicted phenotypes of the children from the union of a woman who is heterozygous for hemophilia (autosomal recessive gene) and a man who is homozygous dominant (normal)? 2 normal and 2 carriers
Created by: cknox2