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Anatomy L3 (LJ)

College leve connective tissue, skin

3 basic components of connective tissue Specialized cells, non-cellular matrix (ground substance), extra cellular fibers produced by the cells themselves: Collagen based (provides strength and flexibility, elastin based ( provide elasticity), Reticular fibers (provide structural softness.
Loose connective tissue FILLS SPACE BETWEEN ORGANS: adipose ( cushion, insulator, storage medium, reticular ( fibrous mesh - lymph nodes and bone marrow), areolar (fibrous mesh- fascia and underlies epithelia.
Dense regular connective tissue Dense collagen fiber network: fibers run parallel = tensile support, FOUND IN TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS AND APENEUROSES (not elastic but strong), poorly vascularized.
Dense irregular connective tissue Fibers make for a chaotic meshwork, CAPABLE OF MULTIDIRECTIONAL TENSION, wrapped at bones (periosteum) and organ ( peritoneum)
Elastic connective tissues Fiber directions mostly straight, very stretchy (ex: interspinous ligaments) IN VERTEBRAE AND PENIS
Supporting connective tissues Bone and cartilage
Fluid-based connective tissues Blood and lymph
Skin as an organ system Cutaneous membrane + hair + nails + exocrine glands ( excrete various substance on the surfaces of skin by way of duct) makes up 15% of body weight, about 0.5-4.0 mm thick.
Function of skin 1. Protection from abrasion/chemicals/pathogens/UV-light. 2. Prevention of water loss and temp. regulation. 3. Synthesis of vitamin D. 4. Sensory reception. 5. Communication of emotions. 6. Storage of fat. 7. Excretion of water, electrolytes, drugs.
4 types of proteins COLLAGEN- digestible, KERATIN- indigestible protein, MELANIN- skin pigment, CAROTENE- skin pigment
Skin color Blood: pink tinge to un-pigmented skin, Carotene: red/ orange tinge, Melanin: in epidermis, black/yellow/ brown pigments absorb UV light, protects deeper cell and dermis, UV light triggers melanin synthesis ( tanning ).
Rosacea Sebaceous gland hyperplasia
Cyanosis Oxygen deficit mean a blue-gray tinge.
Papillary layer of the dermis (top) Dermal papillae, distorts overlying basement membrane/ epidermis (fingerprints), contain capillary loops (blood vessels), contain sensory receptors (Meisner's corpuscles), most skin pathologies concerns dermal papillae
Reticular layer of the dermis (bottom) Dense irregular connective tissues fibers; supports various blood vessels, lymph, nerve endings and glands.
Nails Hyponychium: anterior boundary = free edge, Eponychium (cuticle): =statum corneum, Lunula: white are under the cuticle, Nail root: fold of epithelium - point of growth. COMPOSITES OF DERMIS + EPIDERMIS
Hair follicle Is a complex organ. Pocket of epidermal cells that extends into dermis. Follicle is lubricated by sebaceous gland. Dermal papilla @ bottom of follicle, receives nutrition from capillary loop. Hair shaft has a soft inner medulla + a hard outer cortex.
2 types of hair Vellus (peach-fuzz) covers most of the body. Terminal ( all others) head, body, eyebrows and eyelashes.
Alopecia: androgenetica Male pattern baldness; dihydrotestosterone
Alopecia: universalis Auto immune alopecia; complete hairlessness
Hirsutism Women who have hair growing like men, like the bearded lady. (Pneumonic: her-suit-ism; women in a suit looks like a man and has hair growth like a man).
Hypertrichosis (congenital) Over production of hair both in men and women, but harder to notice in men because men are expected to be substantially more hairy than women.
Goose bumps Arrector pilli ( smooth muscle reflex) hair stands up.
Merocrine sweat glands (Eccrine) Merocrine type secretion. Common in palms, soles, most of body. Simple watery secretion used to control body temp.. Electrolytes, urea, amino acids, ammonia, lactic acid, 500 ml/hr(active)-500 ml/day (sedentary).
Apocrine sweat glands Apocrine type secretion. Limited distribution: axilla + anogenital regions. ACTIVATED AT PUBERTY, OFTEN ODOROUS. Phermones: emotions, sex-status, relatedness?
Mammary glands (milk) Evolved from apocrine glands on body wall. Mixed: apocrine/merocrine mechanism. Salt, calcium, phosphate, lipids, protein.
Ceruminous glands (ear wax) Evolved from apocrine sweat glands in ear canal. Mixed: apocrine/holocrine mechanism.
Sebaceous glands (oil: sebum) Holocrine type of secretion. Waterproof and moisturizes. Provides resistance to bacteria/ fungal growth location: head, chest, back (w/ hair-follicles). Boils/ acne=blocked glands/follicles.
Ulcer (sore) Localized shedding of the epithelium
Decubitis Ulcer Bed-ridden/pressure=chronic lack of blood supply. Kills cells and causes sores
Wrinkles Collagen/elastic fibers damaged by chemicals/UV. Shredded collagen/ elastic fibers: stretch-marks
Excessive UV exposure Damage to dermis and epidermis=wrinkles and cancer.
Folliculitis Bacteria in hair follicle causes inflammation.
Seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff) Inflammation of over-active sebaceous glands.
Melanoma Aggressive malignant tumor. Associate w/ UV light exposure. Tanning beds 75% more likely. (Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, Evolving)
Endocrine glands Duct-less, secretions release cell products directly into intercellular fluid and/or blood supply. (ex: Gut derivatives: pancreas, thyroid, thymus)
Exocrine glands Ducted glands, secretions released from epithelial surface into small ducts that empty to the lumen of the GI tract or skin surface (sweat, tears, saliva).
Created by: 1037022213037652



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