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Chemistry Lecture

Microbiology 2

What are the major elements of the body? CHNOPS - Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur.
What elements make up 95% of the human body by weight? Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon and Hydrogen.
Explain: Atomic Number vs. Atomic Mass Atomic Number - makes an element unique; number of protons. Atomic Mass - number of protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus.
How are ions formed? Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose electrons to stabilize their orbitals. (you can have several of the same elements with same atomic # but different # of electrons)
What is a cation (and how is it made)? Ion with a positive charge. Atom loses 1 or more electrons, leaving atom with positive charge.
What is an anion (and how is it made)? Ion with a negative Charge. Addition of electron leaves an atom with a negative charge.
How many electrons does the first orbital hold? 2 electrons
How many electrons does the 2nd and 3rd orbital hold? 8 electrons (and follows the octet rule)
How does an atom become stable? When orbitals are full, the atom becomes stable.
What are molecules? 2 or more atoms bound together.
What are 2 types of molecules? (and what is the difference between the two?) Organic vs. Inorganic: Organic molecules are carbon based and inorganic molecules are everything else.
What are the major biological organic molecules? (4) Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
Is water TECHNICALLY organic or inorganic? Inorganic because not carbon-based. But it is essential and used in organic chemistry.
Where does polarity come from? Results from uneven sharing of electrons between atoms in a molecule.
What does polarity result in? Results in partial charges.
What is a critically important polar molecule? Water
Explain the polarity of water: Electronegative oxygen creates partially negatively charged region, which is attracted to partially positive charged area of a H atom on a different molecule.
The two hydrogen atoms (in water) bind to form a ____________________ bond and share 2 electrons to become ___________. Covalent bond; to become stable (with the outermost orbital becoming full)
The oxygen atoms take on two hydrogen atoms (in water) to fulfill what rule? Fulfills octet rule; forms water.
Nonpolar molecules result from what? Nonpolar molecules result from equal or near equal sharing of electrons among atoms in a molecule .
What is electronegativity? The ability of a nucleus to attract electrons. (Unequal sharing of electrons causes polarity)
What is the number of particles in a substance without its regard to mass or charge? Molarity
How is molarity measured? Moles of solute / Liters of solution
What is 1 mole equal to? Avagadro's Number: 6.022x10^23 particles
What are the 3 types of chemical bonding? Covalent, Ionic, and Hydrogen
Explain covalent bond: Strong bond; sharing of electrons to fill/stabilize outer orbital.
Explain ionic bond: Weak bond; gain or loss of electron(s) to fill outer orbital.
Explain hydrogen bond: Weak bond; bond between polar hydrogen and nearby Oxygen, Nitrogen or Fluorine atom (NOF)
What is a solution? Solute dissolved in a solvent.
Give an example, using water, of "Like dissolves Like" Polar water dissolves other polar and charged particles. (Solutes dissolve in water; due to attractions of opposite charges to polarity of water)
Water cannot easily dissolve what? Lipids and other non-polar molecules (example: molecular oxygen and nitrogen)
Because water cannot dissolve molecular oxygen, what do we need in our bodies? Hemoglobin to carry molecular oxygen through aqueous blood.
What is concentration? Solute amount / Solvent amount
What is meant by % solution? Mass to volume ratio. (Percent of total solution occupied by the solute)
How would a 5% Glucose solution be made? 5 g glucose dissolved in 100mL of water.
Assume 1 g = ? 1g = 1mL (cm3) which is true for water
Explain moles vs. equivalents: Mole is the number of particles without regard to mass or charge. (1 mole = avogadro's number). Equivalent (Eq) is based on the number of particles and charge. Can be monovalent or divalent. (commonly used for ions in blood)
What are monovalent ions? 1 Eq per mole (sodium is monovalent because it only has one charge)
What are divalent ions? 2 Eq per mole (Mg2+ is divalent)
Sodium and potassium are often expressed in what units? mEq/L (Having to do with equivalents)
What is a dipole? Separation of Charge
In body fluid, what is the solvent? Water (polar and charged)
What is the solute concentration in body fluid? .89% NaCl solution (Normal Saline)
What does isotonic mean? Same concentration
What does hypertonic mean? Higher concentration
What does hypotonic mean? Lower Concentration
What are acids? What are bases? Acids = Hydrogen ion donors. Bases = Hydrogen ion acceptors.
What is the pH scale? ph = -log[H+]
What is the relationship between pH and H+ concentration? Inverse relationship: the lower the pH, the higher the Hydrogen Ion Concentration.
A change of 1 in pH reflects what kind of change in H+ concentration? A change of 1 in pH reflects a 10-fold change in H+ concentration.
Explain the pH scale briefly: pH Scale goes from 1-14; 7 is neutral. 1-6 is acidic, 8-14 is basic/alkaline.
A scale that goes from pH 2.0 to pH 7.0 would have what amount of change in H+ concentration? 10^5 fold change in H+ concentration
Where in the body do you find a pH of 7? Where in the body do you find a pH of 2.0? Intracellular pH = 7. Gastric Acid pH (in the stomach) = 2.0
What is a buffer? Chemicals that minimize change of pH.
HCl is good to use as a buffer for what type of situation? HCl is not a super effective buffer, but it can be used to decrease acidity! HCl --> H+ and Cl-. HCl will take H+ out of solution and pH would increase, preventing solution from being acidic.
What is an example of an effective buffer? Carbonic Acid and Bicarbonate. This is because the RX takes place equally in both directions so it is effective to increase OR decrease pH.
Created by: sham13



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