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Bio 103 Test 1

chapters 1&2

Inductive reasoning Specific observations to a general principle.
Deductive reasoning? If, then statement made from inductive reasoning.
Explain why the truth of a hypothesis cannot be proven conclusively via deductive reasoning. There are always alternatives
Describe scientific theory. Powerful, broad explanation for related observations.
Describe characteristics of a scientific hypothesis. Has to be testable and falsifiable.
Define hypothesis! Proposed explanation for observations.
What are the four steps of the scientific method? 1. Make observations 2. Form Hypothesis 3. Experiment 4. Form A Conclusion
Define variables. Factors that may change.
Define independent (experimental) variables. Those Manipulated by researchers
Define dependent (response) variables. Those not changed by the researcher. Observable effects can be measured.
Define control in terms of the experimental method. Used for comparison. Everything stays the same but 1 variable.
Strategies for minimizing bias when designing experiments, Blind & double blind studies.
Properties associated with living things Composed of cells, growth, movement, reproduction, responds to stimuli, metabolize, maintains homeostasis, evolve
Define elements. Fundamental forms of matter.
Define atoms. Smallest units of an element.
Protons charge and location Positive, nucleus
Neutrons charge and location Neutral, nucleus
Electrons charge and location Negative, electron cloud
Atomic number Number of protons in the nucleus
Ions Atoms with an electrical charge
Molecule 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Describe hydrogen bonds. Positive hydrogen attracted to something negative
Properties of water that make it important in living things Being a good solvent, being cohesive, moderating temperature, facilitating chemical reactions.
Hydrophobic Water fearing
Hydrophilic Water loving
Reactants Solutes that are changed
Products Results; what you end up with
Organic chemistry All organisms contain carbon
Importance of carbon in living organisms Carbon interacts with other elements to produce more complex molecules that make up all living things
acid more hydrogen ions
base more hydroxide
pH scale acid has a pH lower than 7 base has a pH higher than 7 neutral is 7
polymer large organic molecule
monomer subunits
monomer and main functions of carbohydrates. examples... Major source of energy for cells. Monosaccharide, disaccharides, polysaccharide
monomer and main functions of proteins. examples... structural components of cells, form animal muscle cells, form enzymes, form channels through which substances are transported. hemoglobin, keratin, hormones, collagen
function of enzymes. enzymes accelerate and regulate chemical reactions
peptide bonds covalent bond used to form polypeptides
components of lipids hydrophobic molecules made of hydrocarbons (fatty acid tails)
structure and function of each of the three types of lipids fats: store energy, steroids: helps maintain fluidity of the plasma membrane, phospholipids: glyucerol molecule, two fatty acid tails and a phosphate group
monomer of nucleic acid nucleotide
three components of a nucleotide sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
two types of nucleic acids and functions RNA: For protein synthesis DNA: stores genetic information
prokaryotic cells small and microscopic, simple, no nucleus, no organelles, cell walls.
theory of evolution all life on earth derives from a single common ancestors
role of natural selection in diversification process of gradual changes in characteristics of population over time.
eukaryotic cells larger, single celled or multicellular, complex, genetic material in nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, some have cell walls.
Created by: 1846217418967871



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