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Genetics & Molecular

Study Guide for Genetics & Molecular Biology

QuestionAnswer
From LARGEST to SMALLEST, arrange the structures, nitrogen base molecule, nucleus, cell, chromosome and gene in order. Cell > Nucleus > Chromosomes > Gene > Nitrogen base molecule
Which component is used to make a strand of mRNA? Gene
Which component functions as the "genetic code" that determines the traits of an organism? Nitrogen base molecule (A-T C-G= CODE)
What are the nitrogen bases in DNA that form a DNA double helix structure? A-T C-G
What is a mutation? A change in the DNA sequence that alters the genetic information of a cell
How can mutations be passed down to offspring? If mutations occur in the gametes (Sex cells)
What are the two things that can turn on and off gene expression? Environmental factors such as TEMPERATURE, LIGHT and PH can regulate gene expression
What is a gene expression? Each cell only expresses a small fraction of the genes it contains. While many contribute to gene expression, the environment surrounding a cell or organism tends to effect which genes are expressed.
What is Karyotyping? Can be created to determine the sex, a developing fetus and look for chromosomal abnormalities that may cause a disease when that baby is born
What is Gel Electrophoresis used for? Used as fingerprints or they can be used to find out how much one organism is related to another.
What is Recombinant DNA? The process of inserting a gene from one organism into another.
What are the two types of cell in recombining DNA? Human and bacterial cell
This is an answer. Human and bacterial cells combine together.
What are used to cut out or glue back cells? Enzymes
This is an answer. Bacterial cell now has a human gene, the bacteria produces what the human gene tells it to like insulin.
How does genetic information of the new tomato plant compare with that of the original tomato plant? (CLONING) They are both IDENTICAL because the genetics from the original tomato plant was inserted into the new tomato plant.
What is asexual reproduction? Traits are usually passed from parent to offspring WITHOUT genetic modification.
Coded instructions that are passed from one generation to the next can be most directly changed by the processes of? Recombination, mutation, and genetic engineering.
Chromosomes can be described as Coiled strands of genetic material
The genetic code of a DNA molecule is determined by a specific sequence of Molecular bases
The ability to produce increased amounts of lycopene will be passed on to new tomato cells as a direct result of Mitosis
Created by: Nichita