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chapter 2 molecules of cells

matter anything that has mass and takes up space
atom the smallest stable unit of matter
atoms are classified into groups called elements
what percent is your body mass C,O,H,N 95%
what is an element atoms that contain the same number of protons
electrical charge of a proton positive
location of a proton nucleus
electrical charge of a neutron none
location of a neutron nucleus
electrical charge of a electron negative
location of a electron outside of nucleus (orbital)
isotope have same # of protons but different # of neutrons
what plays a major role in chemical bond formation the # of electrons in outermost orbit
octet rule atoms that have more than one orbital are most stable when they have 8 electrons
carbon has how many electrons four
ionic bond charged atoms form, opposite atoms attract (one atom to another atom)
covalent bond share electrons
polar covalent bond electrons are not shared equally, bond has slight + and - charges
non-polar covalent bond electrons are shared equally, bond has no charge
hydrogen bonding attraction between + charge of hydrogen in one molecule and - charge in another molecule
most chemicals will dissolve in water
water is liquid between 0-100 celcius
hydrophilic molecules have a charge and dissolve in water (polar and ions)
hydrophobic molecules have no charge and do not dissolve in water (oils, fats)
water molecules are cohesive and adhesive (stick to each other & stick to other polar/charged things)
temperature of ____?_____ rises and falls more slowly than other liquids under the same condition water
takes a lot of ____?___ to change liquid water into steam heat
water has a __?__ __?__ tension high / surface
frozen water is more/less dense than liquid water less
acids release H+ when they separate in water
bases accept H+ or release OH+ when they separate in water
ph scale - 7 is neutral
ph scale - less than 7 is acidic
ph scale - greater than 7 is basic
buffers molecules that maintain ph
inorganic molecules small ionic, no carbon, nonliving matter
organic molecules has carbon, very large, living organisms
monomers small molecules, exist by themselves or link up to form polymer molecules
polymer large chains of smaller molecules
dehydration reaction water is taken out and covalent bond is formed between monomers to form a larger polymer
hydrolysis reaction water is added, polymer is broken down into smaller monomers
fats in animals, serves as insulation and long term energy storage
unsaturated fatty acids double bonds between carbons, lower melting point, healthier (oil)
saturated fatty acids no double bonds between carbons, higher melting point, cardiovascular disease (butter)
trans fats fats that have been altered by the addition of hydrogen, most harmful
phospholipids forms the basic structure for the plasma membrane, membranes inside cell
steriods are hormones
protein support structural proteins (hair, nails)
protein enzymes speed up chemical reaction in a cell
protein transport channel proteins in the plasma membrane that allow substances to enter the cell
protein defense antibodies of the immune system fight foreign invaders
protein hormones intercellular messengers that are made up of one cell and act on another cell
protein motion/movement actin and myosin contract during muscle contraction
B. Structure amino acids, building blocks of protein
how many different amino acids are there 20
proteins are large chains of amino acids
peptide short chain of amino acids (2-14)
polypeptide longer chains of amino acids (14+)
denaturation of proteins changes in ph cause proteins to loose their shape and function (destroying structure)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores the genetic information in the cell
what determines protein shape and function DNA
RNA (ribonucleic acid) translates the genetic information of dna into protein
structure of DNA A, T, G, N, C
structure of RNA A, U, G, N, C
nucleotide has 3 regions (DNA, RNA) phosphate, sugar, nitrogen
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) composed of one nucleotide, energy stored in phosphate bond, functions as a carrier of energy in cells
starch - polysaccharides energy stored in plants
glycogen - polysaccharides energy stored in animals
cellulose - polysaccharides provides structural support in plant cell walls (animals cant digest)
chitin - polysaccharides provides structural support in exoskeleton of crabs and insects
Created by: kelley kelley



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