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Biology Chapter 12.1

TermDefinition
Sex Chromosome One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual.
Autosome Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Sex-linked Trait A trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans.
Linked Gene One of a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together.
Chromosome Map A diagram of gene positions on a chromosome.
Map Unit In chromosome mapping, an increment of 1 percent in the frequency of crossing-over.
Germ-cell Mutation Mutation that occurs in an organism's gametes.
Somatic-cell Mutation A mutation that occurs in a body cell.
Lethal Mutation A gene or chromosomal mutation that influences the development of an organism cannot survive.
Deletion The loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome.
Inversion A reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment, within a chromosome.
Translocation The movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment; also the movement of soluble nutrients from one part of a plant to another.
Nondisjunction The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis 1 or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis 2.
Point Mutation A mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed.
Substitution A mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide.
Frameshift Mutation A mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame.
Insertion Mutation A mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene.
Created by: DragonT20