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Biology Ch. 11.2

The Human Digestive System

Digestion The process of breaking down food taken by an organism into smaller elements that the organism can use to live, grow and repair itself.
Mechanical Digestion The initial stage of physically breaking down food into smaller pieces. Occurs in the mouth. Teeth chew the food and the tongue manipulates it.
Chemical Digestion The separation of food into its molecular components by chemical means. Begins in the mouth with the digestion enzymes in saliva. Continues in the stomach. Completed in the small intestine.
Tongue Made of skeletal muscles. Covered in papillae.
Papillae Bumpy structures that house taste buds.
Uvula Hangs from the middle of the roof of the mouth (soft palate) that prevents food from entering the pharynx when we swallow.
Salivary Glands They secrete saliva which mixes with food.
Esophagus Lined with circular and longitudinal muscles. Covered in a lubricant called mucin. Circular ring at the lower end controls the flow of food into (or out of) the stomach.
Stomach Food enters from the esophagus. Muscular, j-shaped, sac-like organ. Interior lining is covered with millions of gastric glands. Has 3 muscular layers. Muscular layers help break the food down and the gastric juices mix to form chyme.
Pyloric Sphincter A circular muscle layer between the stomach and the small intestine. Contracts and relaxes to control the flow of food leaving the stomach.
Duodenum U-shaped. Shortest and widest section. Has many folds that contain small, visible, finger-like projections called villi.
Villi Small, finger-like projections. Functions to increase the absorptive surface of the intestine.
Jejunum Contains more folds and intestinal glands than the duodenum. Breaks down remaining proteins and carbohydrates for absorption.
Ileum ...
Caecum The blind end of the large intestine. The appendix is attached to the caecum but it plays no role digestion. Plays some roles in fighting infection.
Colon The main part of the large intestine. The undigested food passes up, along and down the ________.
Feces The mass of undigestible material that remains at the end of the colon.
Peristalsis The term given to the movement of food through the digestive tract. A series of wave-like muscular contractions and relaxations.
Hydrolysis Water molecules are inserted between the bonds in macromolecules which breaks them down into smaller particles. Sped up by enzymes.
Liver Produces bile salts from cholesterol. Used to break up fat. Also recycles, stores and detoxifies.
Pancreas Source of several enzymes. Helps to change pH of chyme before it enters the duodenum.
Gall Bladder Stores bile produced in the liver for use later on.
Created by: Inkina



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