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Wave of depolarization An advancing wave of charge reversal as a nerve impulse advances along theneuron
Wakefulness system The system in the brain that maintains a state of consciousness always feel this. It consists of a central core( a rectangular core) in the brain stem with neurons that radiates to the cortex
Vomiting Center The center in the brainstem that induces the vomiting responses
Vital centers Centers in the brainstem that controls such physiologic processes as blood pressure and pulse, depth and rate of respiration, exedra
Vestibular nerve Part of the 8th cranial nerve that is connected with equilibrium and hearing
Venule Any of small vessels that collect blood from networks of capillaries and join them to form veins
Ventricular tachycardia A cardiac dysrhythmia in which there is a rapid firing of ectopic focus and the ventricles (with a rate of 140 to 200 BPM) and a wide QRS complex with no p waves
Ventricular rhythms Cardiac dysrhythmia in which the pacemaker is in the ventricles rather than in the SA node or Atria
Ventricular Focus It displays point of origin for a dysrhythmia that is in the ventricle
Ventricular fibrillation Arrhythmia characterized by contraction of ventricles muscle fibers due to Rapid excitation of myocardial fibers without coordinated contraction of the ventricles
Ventricle One of a pair of cavities that have thick muscular walls and make up the bulk of the heart
Vein also vena A vessel that carries blood from organs or other parts of the body back to the heart
Vasodilation Dilation of a vessel, especially dilation of atrerioles leading to increased blood flow to a part
Vasoconstriction Pharmacologic agents that cause blood vessels to constrict (EG epinephrine)
Vaporizer A device that allows for the controlled evaporation and release of an inhalation anesthetic agents for the administration of inhalation anesthesia
Vapocoolant A chemical spray applied to the skin to rapidly cool the skin surface and desensitize it in preparation for venipuncture or injection of medication
Vagus nerve The tenth cranial nerve that supplies fibers to the many parts of the body, including the ears,tongue,pharynx, larynx, and thoracic abdominal viscera
type 2 diabetes Non insulin dependent diabetes formerly called adult-onset diabetes, which patients really require insulin injections to regulate their glucose levels
Type 1 diabetes Insulin dependent diabetics formerly called juvenile diabetes and which patients must receive insulin injections to regulate their glucose levels
Trigeminal nerve The fifth cranial nerve that supplies sensation to the face teeth mouth and nasal cavity and supplies motor ability to some facial muscles such as muscles of mastication
Transient ischemic attack A brief attack from a few minutes to an hour of cerebral dysfunction caused by reduced blood flow in the brain
Tracheostomy The surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
Trachea The tube descending from the larynx and branching into the left and right main bronchi - also called the windpipe
Titrate To give a small quantity of a drug and assess its effects before giving additional drugs
Tidal volume The amount of gas that is inspired or expired during one respiratory cycle
Thrombosis Formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel, usually a vein
Third degree AV block An atrioventricular block in which the impulse does not conduct from the Atria to the ventricles and there is independent contraction of the Atria and ventricles
Terminal button The vault at the end of the nerve that touches the next nerve in the nerve pathway at a synapse
Tachycardia Fast heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute
T wave The EKG waveform that represents repolarization of The ventricle
Systolic Pertaining to the face of the heart's pumping action when the ventricles contract, forcing blood either to the lungs or peripheral circulation
Synergistic The phenomenon exists when two drugs are administered together and the combined effect is greater than the sum of its parts
Syncope Temporary suspension of Consciousness due to generalize cerebral ischemia; fainting
Synaptic cleft The gap between two neurons where they meet synapse
Synapse The Junction between two neurons where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another
Sympathomimetics Having activity that mimics the effects of sympathetic nervous systems, Angie, epinephrine
Sympathetic nervous system The portion of the autonomic nervous system pertaining to the thoracic and Lumbar parts of the spine
Supraventricular tachycardia A cardiac dysrhythmia in which there is a rapid fire of an ectopic focus in the Atria above the levels of the ventricles with a rate of 150 to 250 BPM in a narrow QRS complex
Supraventricular foci Central points of origin of dysrhythmia which are located above the level of ventricles in the Atria
Superior vena cava The Venus trunk that drains blood from the head neck upper extremities and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart
Subcutaneous Beneath the skin usually refers to an injection technique in which the drug is deposited in the connective tissue layer beneath the skin
Stroke volume The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle during each beat of the heart
Sinus tachycardia A cardiac dysrhythmia similar to normal sinus rhythm except for an increase in rate of greater than 100 BPM but usually less than 150 bpm
Sinus rhythm Cardiac rhythms in which the pacemaker is the sinoatrial node
Sinus bradycardia Cardiac dysrhythmias sandwich in normal sinus rhythm except for a lower rate of less than 60 BPM
Sinus arrhythmia A cardiac dysrhythmia similar to normal sinus rhythm but with a slight variation in rate with inspiration and expiration
Sinoatrial node A microscopic collection of heart muscle fibers were cardiac Rhythm originates Kama also called the pacemaker of the heart
Sensory nerve Owner of peripheral nervous system that conducts impulses from sense organs to the spinal cord or brain
Sedative A group of pharmacologic agents used to provide a sense of relaxation and patients who are apprehensive... pentobarbital and droperidol
Second degree AV block, type 2 Atrioventricular block with alternating conducting and non-conducting impulsive and multiple drop beats
Second degree AV block type 1 An atrioventricular block with Progressive elongation of the PR interval followed by a drop heartbeat
Run PVCs Several PVCs in succession. Three or more are considered the beginning of ventricular tachycardia
Rheumatic heart disease Damage to the heart, primarily the heat valves, caused by systemic bacterial infection
Review of systems An organized set of questions asked during history taking address each of the major body systems
Repolarization Reestablishment of a normal distribution of charge across the neuronal membrane
Relay Center An ovoid structure in the central portion of the brain that relays sensory input to the cerebral cortex
Redistribution The release of a drug from its initial receptor site and its movement through the bloodstream to other body structures such as fat stores muscles
Receptor sites Specialized sites on ION channels to which natural neurotransmitter substances 4 drugs attached, usually leading to the opening of the ion channel for passage of positively or negatively charged ions
Rales Abnormal breath sounds detected during auscultation of the lungs they're all this crap is crackling or bubbling
QRS complex Element appearing on a cardiac monitor tracing that reflects the activity that produces ventricular contraction
Purkinje fiber system Specialized cardiac muscle fibers that rapidly transmit impulses in the heart and coordinate contraction of the heart, dense networks of these fibers form the sinoatrial and atrioventricular node
Pulseless v-tach A cardiac dysrhythmia in which there is a monitor display a ventricular tachycardia but there is no contractions
Pulmonary veins The veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart this is the only case in the body and which veins carry oxygenated blood
Pulmonary artery One of two arteries, branches of the pulmonary trunk, that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs
Pterygoid plexus A network of things corresponding to the second and third parts of the maxillary artery
Pseudocholinesterase A type found in the blood that is responsible for the metabolic breakdown of a muscle relaxant succinylcholine
Protease inhibitors A class of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of AIDS to help prevent replication HIV virus in the blood
Prothrombin A protein present in plasma that represents one of several coagulation factors comma substances in the blood that are essential to the clotting process
Premature ventricular contraction PVC Premature contraction of the heart that is independent of the normal Rhythm and arises in response to an Impulse in the ventricle
Premature atrial contraction p a c Premature firing of an ectopic focus in the Atria producing an early contractions are the Atria
Potentiate To make stronger or enhance the effects of a drug or anesthetic agent
Pons And almond-shaped structure that is the uppermost portion of the brainstem and serves as a bridge to the midbrain the pons and medulla oblongata beneath it contains the vital centers that control such physiologic processes as maintenance of blood pressure
PO ( per os) Through the mouth
Pneumonitis Inflammation of the lungs
Phlebitis Inflammation of a blood vessel, usually a vein, in response to an irritating intravenously administrator substance
Pharynx The muscular and membranous cavity leading from the mouth and lower nasal passages to the trachea
Pharmacokinetics The effects that the body has on a drug ie what the body does to the drug
Pharmacodynamics The effects that the drug has on various body,ie, what the drug does to the body
Peripheral nervous system The portion of the nervous system consisting of the nerves and ganglia, groups of nerve cell bodies, outside the brain and spinal cord
Pulseless electrical activity.. Pea Cardiac dysrhythmia in which a normal Rhythm such as sinus bradycardia appears on the monitor screen over there is no contraction of the heart
Paroxysmal tachycardia A condition marked by sudden attacks of Rapid Heartbeats
Parenteral Routes of medication administration other than by mouth (eg. Intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous)
Parasympathetic nervous system The part of the autonomic nervous system pertaining to skull and sacrum... Bone just below the lumbar vertebrae
Paradoxical effect An effect that is the opposite of the intended effect
P wave A wave appearing on a cardiac monitor tracing that reflects the electrical activity that produces a contraction of the Atria
Oxygen capacity The maximum amount of oxygen an individual's body can carry, this capacity depends on the amount of hemoglobin available
Oropharynx The division of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and the upper edge of epiglottis
Optic nerve The second cranial nerve which allows a person to see
Olfactory nerve The first cranial nerve which allows a person to smell
NPO Nothing by mouth(nil per os)
Normal sinus rhythm The normal Rhythm of the heart containing p waves, QRS complexes and T waves with a regular rate of 60 - 100 BPM
Norepinephrine Adrenal gland that is the principal neurotransmitter of sympathetic nerve endings supplying the major organs and skin, increases blood pressure and rate and depth of breathing, raises level of blood sugar and decreases the activity of intestines
Neurotransmitters A chemical substance that crosses the synaptic cleft and activates opening of ion channels in the postsynaptic nerve and thereby enables the nerve impulses to pass from one nerve to the next
Neuron Nerve cell
Nasopharynx The part of the pharynx that lies above the back of the soft palate
Narcotics Drugs that produce insensibility is stupor... morphine, Fentanyl, meperidine( siblimaz)
Narcotics Agonist - antagonist Pharmalogic agents that reverse the effects of Narcotics while also providing pain relief and a degree of sedation...pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol tartrate
Myocardium The middle and the thickest layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle
Myocardial infraction Necrosis, death, of tissue of The myocardium resulting from an interruption of the blood supply to the area, as in coronary thrombosis
Multifocal premature ventricular contractions PVC PVCs for which there are two or more ectopic Foci that generate PVCs of different configurations
Motor nerve A nerve of the peripheral nervous system that stimulates muscle contraction
Mitral valve prolapse About your heart disorder in which one or both mitral valve flaps close incompletely
Mitral valve The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart collects blood pass into the left ventricle
Metabolism The chemical alteration of drugs and other substances that usually takes place in the liver. In some cases the new substance formed by the chemical alteration has no chemical activity of its own, while in other cases there may be active metabolites
Mental artery Artery that distributes blood to the Chin
Medulla oblongata An oblong shaped structure in the upper portion of the brainstem, which, along with the pons, contains the vital centers that control such physiologic processes as maintenance of blood pressure and pulse comment respiration
Maxillary artery Re that supplies blood to the maxilla, teeth, Ayer, meninges nose, nasal sinus and platelet
Lingual artery Artery that supplies blood to the tongue, tonsils and floor of the mouth
Laryngopharynx A part of the pharynx that lies directly behind the larynx...voice box
Junctional rhythms Cardiac dysrhythmia in which the ectopic pacemaker is in the area of the AV Junction
Jaundice Is Central characterized by yellow skin, mucous membrane and sclera... white outer coat of the eyeball
ischemia Deficiency of blood to a body part, due to the functional constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel
Ion channels Microscopic channels within the membranes of a neuron through which charged particles or is passed during conduction of the nerve impulse
Internal jugular vein Vein that drains much of the blood from head and the neck
Inferior vena cava The venous trunk from the lower extremities and abdominal viscera that empties blood into the right atrium of the heart
Induction The initiation of a state of unconsciousness during anaesthesia
Inferior alveolar artery Artery that supplies blood to the mandible, teeth, lower lip and Chin
Hypoxia Low levels of oxygen in the body's tissue
Hypothyroidism Deficiency of thyroid activity characterize an adult by decreased basal metabolic rate, tiredness, festivities a cold, and menstrual disturbances
Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure
Hypotension Abnormally low blood
Hypnosis Unconsciousness induced by an anesthetic agent
Hyperthyroidism Excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland, characterized by increased basal metabolism goiter and disturbance of autonomic nervous system
Hypercarbia An increased level of carbon dioxide
Homeostasis The maintenance of internal stability of a system with minimal variation from the normal state, maintenance of blood pressure or pulse and respiration within the normal range
Hemoglobin A component of red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
Hematoma Localized collection of blood, usually clotted in an organ, space, or tissue, due to a break in the wall of a blood vessel
Haematocrit The volume percentage of erythrocytes whole blood
Heart murmur A sound heard with a stethoscope indicator of a backflow of blood into the atrium or into the ventricles
Heart blocks See atrioventricular block
Halogenated hydrocarbons Inhalation general anesthetic agents containing carbon, hydrogen and elements from the halogen series of atoms such as chlorine or bromine... Fluothane, isofluranr, desflurane and sevoflurane
Glucocorticoids A type of corticosteroid involved in many body functions
Focus A sight in the atrium or ventricle that is the center point for the generation of an impulse example pacemaker
Flatline Descriptive term for asystole in which there are no reflections of the Baseline
First-degree 1 AV block An intraventricular block with a long PR interval, but no missed Beats
Fine ventricular fibrillation In which there are very small deflection of the Baseline
Fasciculation Sustained twitching of all of the muscles of the body
Facial artery Artery that supplies blood to the face, cancel, palette, and submandibular gland
Extravasation Venus fluid into the tissue surrounding the intravenous cannula during an intravenous infusion
Euphoria A feeling of elation or well-being caused by drug or anesthetic agent
Ester A chemical structure created by the combination of an acid with an alcohol. There is a group of Ester local anesthetics they are procaine and cocaine
Erythocyte Red blood cell
Epinephrine A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that is potent stimulator of the sympathetic nervous system and a powerful vasopressor, increasing blood pressure, stimulating the heart muscle, accelerating the heart rate and increasing cardiac output;also increas
Epiglottis A soft tissue valve located at the base of the tongue that prevents food from entering the larynx and trachea while swallowing
Endocarditis Endocardium, the lining of the cavities of the heart and content of tissue bed on which it lies
Emla Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic. And ointment containing a mixture of Lidocaine and prilocaine that is used as a topical anesthetic prior to venipuncture
Embolism The sudden blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material
Emergence The Awakening return of consciousness of a patient following anesthesia
Electrocardiogram EKG, a graphic tracing of the variations in the heart's electrical activity used in the diagnosis of heart disease
Ectopic pacemaker Any biologic Cardiac pacemaker other than the sinus node
Ectopic Focus A displaced central point of origin for a cardiac dysrhythmia
Ectopic Displaced. The term is often used to describe displaced foci for the generation of an Impulse in the myocardium,ie an ectopic pacemaker
Dysrhythmia Disturbance of cardiac rhythm
Dyspnea Difficult or labored breathing
Dysphoria Unpleasant feeling or emerging from anaesthesia
Dorsum The back or posterior aspect of an atomic part, eg the dorsum of the hand
Diuretic An agent that promotes the excretion of urine
Dissociative anesthesia A form of anaesthesia in which the patient becomes dissociated or detach from the sensory inputs for his or her environment
Digitalis A pharmacologic agent used to treat congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and paroxysmal tachycardia of the artery
Diffusion hypoxia Phenomenon during emergence from anaesthesia that follows the discontinuation of nitrous oxide during which nitrous oxide rapidly passes from the bloodstream into the alveoli and displaces other passes including oxygen
Diastolic Pertaining to the phase when the heart's pumping action forces blood into the ventricles of the ventricles to expand
Diaphragm The partition of muscles and tendons between the abdominal and chest cavities. It is the primary respiratory muscle responsible for inhalation and exhalation of air in the lungs
Depolarization The reversal of charge across the neuronal membrane caused by the movement of positively and negatively charged ions through ion channels
Deciliter A deciliter is 1/10 as a leader and is the common unit used in the measurement of hemoglobin, which is expressed in milligrams per deciliter(mg/dL)
Cyanosis A bluish discoloration, especially of the skin and mucous membranes
Cushing's disease Abnormally increased activity of the adrenal glands as a result of excessive pituitary secretion of glucocorticoids
Cricothyrotomy A procedure involving incisions or passage of large needle through the cricothyroid ligament who create an airway for emergency relief of upper Airway obstruction also called coniotomy
Cranial nerve Any of the 12 pairs of nerves connected with the brain they are part of the peripheral nervous system
Couplets 2 premature ventricular contractions PVCs in succession
Corticosteroids Also called adrenocortical hormones... Any other steroids produced by the adrenal cortex and involved in many activities, including the body's response to stress. They are used clinically for anti-inflammatory purposes to suppress the immune response and
Coronary sinus The terminal portion of the great cardiac vein Kama which lies between the left atrium and ventricle that empties into the right atrium
Continuous infusion Slow steady Administration of intravenous fluid or aesthetic Asian
Coniotomy Procedure involving incisions or passage of a large needle through the cricothyroid ligament to create Airway for emergency relief of upper Airway obstruction, also called cricothyrotomy
Congestive heart failure Clinical syndrome due to heart disease and characterized by breathlessness and normal order sodium retention results in edema
Congenital heart disease A cardiac disease caused by a defect in the heart structure present at birth
Compensatory pause A long beak that compensates for a shorter beep that contains either atrial or ventricular premature contraction
Common carotid artery One of two large, palpable arteries in the neck, the one on the right branches off to the brachiocephalic artery and the one on the left branches off the aorta
Course v. Fib Ventricular fibrillation in which there are relatively prominent deflection of the Baseline
Cmtc - the chemoreceptor trigger Zone A center in the brain stem the response to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the blood and signals the vomiting Center to induce vomiting
Cirrhosis Liver disease characterized by loss of normal microscopic lobular of the liver and the formation of fibrosis tissue
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Any disorder Marc By persistent obstruction of bronchial airflow examples asthma chronic bronchitis pulmonary emphysema
Cerebrum The main portion of the brain that is concerned with thinking
Cerebrovascular accident CVA Also called stroke, a neurological defect lasting more than 24 hours caused by reduced blood flow in the brain
Cerebellum The part of the brain that is concerned with the coordination of movement
Central nervous system That portion of the nervous system consisting of brain and spinal column
Center of emotion a group structures in the central portion of the brain that regulates the spectrum of emotional response funny calm, glasses State on the other hand to a state of anxiety or rage on the other
Catatonic A psychiatric state in which the patient appears apathetic and stuporous with diminution of sensibility
Cic cardio inhibitory Center A group of neurons in the brain stem that has inhibitory influence on the heart action via the vagus 10 cranial nerve
Cardioacceleratory center A group of neurons in the brain stem involved in the acceleration of a heart action... Conducting cells of the nervous system
Cardiac output The total amount of blood pumped by either French call of the heart per unit of time... Usually volume per minute Kama it is equal to stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate
Cardiac cycle The compleat cardiac movement the systolic and diastolic movement with interval between them or heartbeat, the number of cardiac cycles per minute constitute the heart rate
Cardiac dysrhythmia... Arrhythmias Rhythm disturbance of the heart
Capnography Measurement the amount of carbon dioxide in expired air
Capillary Any of the minute vessels that connect the arterioles with and venules, forming a network in nearly all parts of the body
Bundle of His A small band of a atypical cardiac muscle fibers that propagates the atrial contraction Rhythm to the ventricles
Bronchi... Bronchus Any other larger air passages of the lungs
Bronchiole One of the finer 1 millimeter or less, subdivisions of the bronchial tree
Bradycardia Slow heart rate, less than 60 beats per minute
Brachiocephalic artery the large artery on the right of the neck that distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and right arm
Brachial artery artery that supplies blood to the shoulder arm forearm and hand
Bolus Directly administered dose of medication, as compared to a slow, study administration of medication continuous infusion
Blood Dyscraia Any abnormal condition of the blood
Baroreceptor Is sensory nerve ending that is stimulated by changes in pressure, and those in the walls of blood vessels
Barbiturates A group of pharmacologic agents that have sedative properties and produces amnesia and a hypnotic effect examples thiopental sodium and methohexital
Balance anaesthesia Anesthesia that relies on the use of several agents together, capitalizing on the best aspects of each agent, but using it at a smaller dose than will be required if it were used alone
AV block See atrioraventricular block
autonomic nervous system A portion of the nervous system concerned with the regulation of the activity of cardiac muscles smooth muscles and glands
Automaticity The condition of being automatic
Atrium An upper chamber of the heart, Atria also exist other parts of the body
Atrioventricular node A microscopic collection of heart muscle fibers involved in the electrical activity of the heart
Atrioventricular block A cardiac condition defect in which the impulse generated by the SA node is partially or completely blocked in the area of the AV node
Atrial tachycardia Rapid heartbeat originating from the Atria
Atrial rhythms or subsupraventricular Dysrhythmia in which the pacemaker is in the a tree above the level of the ventricles Supra ventricle area
Atrial flutter A condition of cardiac arrhythmia and which atrial contractions are rapid but regular between 200 and 320 per minute
Atrial fibrillation Atrial arrhythmia characterized by rapid randomized contractions of the atrial myocardium, causing a totally irregular and often rapid rate
Atherosclerosis A disease of the arteries characterized by deposition of plaques of fatty material in the inner walls
Ataractics pharmacologic agents that produce a tranquilizing effect
Asystole Cardiac arrest in which there is No rhythm display in the contraction
Ascites Accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
Artery a vessel that carries blood away from the heart to other parts of the body
Arteriole Any of the very small atrial branches located at the end of an artery futherest from the heart
Arrhythmia Any variation from the normal Rhythm of the heartbeat
Arrest rhythms Cardiac rhythms in which there is cardiac arrest. Some arrest rhythms such as pulseless ventricular tachycardia are accompanied by Rhythm display, but there is no contraction
Apnea Absence or cessation of breathing
Aorta The main trunk from which the atrial system for proceeds a very large artery
Anxiolytics Drugs that reduce anxiety, education or tension example diazepam Valium midazolam versed
Antisialogogue A drug that counteracts the production of saliva
Antiemetic A drug that can counteract nausea and vomiting
Anticholinergic A drug that counteracts the action of acetylcholine the neurotransmitter of parasympathetic nervous system and thereby blocks the action of the parasympathetic nerves
Antecubital fossa the depression between the forearm and upper arm that is literally in front of the elbow
Antecubital Situated in front of the elbow
Angina pectoris Pain in the chest, with a feeling of Suffocation, usually due to a deficiency of blood supply to The myocardium
Anemia a reduction in the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream
Anaphylaxis A severe allergic reaction marked by any of the several severe responses, including skin reactions, smooth muscle cramping, urinary incontinence, constriction of bronchioles, respiratory difficulty, and cardiovascular collapse
Analgesia Insensitivity to pain
Amnesia Failure to remember events related to surgery
Amide A chemical structure derived from ammonia, there is a group of amide local anesthetics they are widely used in dentistry example lidocaine prilocaine bupivacaine
Alveolus A small air sac within the body of the lung
Allergenicity Having the property of an allergen, a substance that will elicit an allergic response insensitive individuals
Adjunctive agents Ages that supplement the primary anesthetic agent to augment or enhance the effects of the primary agent
Addison's disease A disease due to hypersecretion of glucocorticoids, characterized by low blood pressure and anemia, diarrhea, that just took the service, in a box like pigmentation of the skin
Created by: Ashdavis37