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Biology Chapter 9

Genetics The science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring.
Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring.
Trait A genetically determined variant of a characteristic.
Pollination The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures (the anthers) to the tip of a female reproductive structure (the pistil) of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms.
Self-pollination The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant.
Cross-pollination A reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant.
True-breeding Describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait.
P Generation Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross.
F1 Generation The first generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms.
F2 Generation The second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation.
Dominant Describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Recessive Describes a trait or an allele that is expressed only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited.
Law of Segregation Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete.
Law of Independent Assortment The law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis.
Molecular Genetics The study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes.
Allele One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.
Created by: DragonT20