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Terms 9.1

genetics the science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parent to offspring
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
trait a genetically determined variant of a characteristic
pollination the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the tip of the female reproductive structure of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms
self-pollination the transfer of pollen grain from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or the stigma of another flower on the same plant
cross-pollination a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
true-breeding describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait
P generation parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F1 generation the first generation of offspring obtained from the experimental cross of two organisms
F2 generation the second generation of offspring, obtained from the experimental cross of two organisms
dominant describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes
recessive describes a trait or an allele that is expressed only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
law of segregation Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
law of independent assortment the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
molecular genetics the study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes
allele one of the alternate forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
Created by: Addaleigh



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