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Chapter 9


genetics the science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring
heredity the passing of genetics traits from parents to offspring
trait a genetically determined variant of a characteristic.
pollination the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the tip of the female reproductive structure of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperm.
self-pollination the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant
cross-pollination a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
true-breeding describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait.
P generation parental generation, the first two individual that mate in a genetic cross.
F1 generation the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
F2 generation the second generation of offspring obtaining from an experimental cross of two organisms the offspring of the F1 generation.
dominant describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair homologous chromosomes.
recessive describes a trait or an allele that is expressed only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristics are inherited.
law of segregation Mende's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosomes from each pair is preset in each gamete.
law of independent assortment the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis.
molecular genetics the study of the structure od nucleic acid and the function and regulation of genes.
allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits.
phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic that results from the organism's genotype and the environment
homozygous describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes.
heterozygous describes an individual that has two different alleles for a trait
probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event; the mathematical ratio of the number of times one outcome of any event is likely to occur to the number of possible outcomes of the event
monohybrid cross a cross between individuals that involves the pair of contrasting traits
Punnett square a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
genotypic ratio the ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring
phenotypic ratio the ratio of phenotypes produced by a cross
testcross the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
complete dominance a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another
incomplete dominance a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully.
codominance a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
dihybrid cross a cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
Created by: FarlowA20