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Unit 2A Exam Review

QuestionAnswer
How does energy move through the biosphere? Energy moves through the biosphere through the food chain. It is one-directional as energy is lost at each stage in the form of heat.
How is energy lost through the food cycle? Energy is lost at each stage in the form of heat.
Describe the movement of energy through the food cycle. Energy from the sun is taken up by producers (plants) in the form of photosynthesis. It is then transferred to consumers who eat the plants, then to carnivores that eat consumers, and finally lost when the final organism dies.
How does matter move through the biosphere? Matter moves through the biosphere in cycles: The movement is circular as matter is neither created nor destroyed.
Name three different cycles of matter. Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Water cycle.
What changes can be associated with global changes? Increased coastal flooding due to melting glaciers
What shape is commonly used to depict the food chain? A triangle (a food pyramid)
What shape is commonly used to describe the shape of the cycle of matter? A circle
What is a producer? (Also called an autotroph) Plants that use the sun's energy to make their own food (energy) through the process of photosynthesis.
What is a consumer? (Also called a heterotroph) A consumer is an organism that eats other organisms for food (energy.)
Name three different types of consumers. (Heterotrophs) Herbivore, Omnivores, Predators.
What is an herbivore? An organism that eats plants for food (energy)
What is an omnivore? An organism that eats both plants and animals for food (energy.)
What is a carnivore? (Also called a predator) An organism that eats animals for food (energy.)
What does a 'decomposer' do? Decomposers cycle nutrients from dead organisms back to the soil.
What the term 'Abiotic' mean? Non-living factors of an ecosystem. Examples are sunlight, water, soil, climate
What does the term "Biotic' mean? Factors of an ecosystem that are either living or have been alive at some point Examples: Plants, leaves, decayed leaves, animals.
What is the theory of continental drift? That theory that all of the continents were once joined in one large super continent
How is continental drift important to fossil discoveries? It explains how fossils of the same type of organism can be found in different regions of the world.
Explain the most likely reason for a species of plant native to Russia found flowering in California? A human brought seeds from Russia and planted them in California.
Explain the process of photosynthesis? Input: Sunlight (light energy), Carbon dioxide, Water Output: Oxygen, Glucose, Chemical energy
How are Biomes classified? By climate
How is climate classified? By temperature and rainfall
Name 6 different Biomes Rain forest, desert, taiga, tundra, wetland and savanna (also called grassland)
What is a heterotroph? An organism that must eat another organism for food (energy.)
What is an autotroph? An organism that makes it's own food (energy) through photosynthesis.
How do plants get carbon? Plants absorb carbon from the atmosphere.
How do plants get nitrogen? Plants get nitrogen from nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil.
True or False? Carbon is present in all organisms and in the atmosphere True
What happens in an ecosystem if a link in a food chain is removed? The prey before that link increase while the predators after that link decrease
Describe the process of 'Eutrophication." Eutrophication occurs when chemical fertilizers from nearby farms get washed into nearby lakes and streams. The fertilizer causes plant life or algae to grow rapidly, but this rapid growth kills off other living organisms in the aquatic ecosystem.
What is an 'invasive species.' A species that is not native to an ecosystem, but takes over and destroys the native species
Describe the rain forest biome A very warm/wet area with dense and diverse plant species that receives a lot of rain. Mostly occurring in the tropical wet climate zone.
Describe the tundra biome An extremely cold, dry area with short cold summers and very cold winters. Only grasses and shrubs grow here because the ground water is frozen almost year round.
Describe the taiga biome An area populated by coniferous tree and characterized by cold dry winters and cool summers.
Describe the savanna (grassland) biome A warm area populated mostly by grasses and other short non-woody plants that receives moderate rainfall per year
Describe the desert biome An extremely dry region with very little vegetation and extreme temperatures that receives almost no rainfall per year.
What is condensation? Water in gaseous form collects into liquid
What is evaporation? Water in liquid form changes to the gas state
What is precipitation? Water in liquid, frozen, or semi frozen state that falls from clouds
What are 'Carbon-Offsets'? Carbon-Offsets are credits that organizations can purchase to fund restorative projects
What does 'adaptation' mean? An adaptation is an inherited modification of structure or function that allows an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment.
Give two examples of adaptations that have allowed organisms to survive and reproduce in their environments. Arctic rabbits have adapted white fur to blend into their surroundings in the arctic. Cactus plants have adapted thick waxy 'skin' to retain water in the desert.
Created by: scanto