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AICE Biology

Mitosis terms

TermDefinition
Nuclear division The process by which a nucleus divides, resulting in the separation of the genome to opposite poles of a dividing cell. This occurs in both mitosis and meiosis.
Chromatin The material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria are composed. It consisted of protein, RNA, and DNA.
Karyotype The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
Diploid (Of cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Homologous pairs Chromosomes pairs, one from each parent, that are similar in length and gene location.
Sex chromosomes A chromosomes involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds
Haploid (Of cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Autosomes Any chromosomes that is not a sex chromosomes
Chromatids Each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosomes divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
Centromere The point on a chromosomes by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
Locus The particular positions on homologous chromosomes of a gene
Allele One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristics such as hair color
Carrier An individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele.
Mitosis part of the cell cycle in which cell divison occurs, made up of four cells
Meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus which results in the procedure of sex cells.
Centrioles a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
Spindles Forms near nucleus, during mitosis or meiosis in which it draws the chromosomes to opposite poles or the cell.
Cytokinesis The cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
Cell plate Develops a the midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell and that is involved in forming the wall between the two new daughter cells.
Cleavage The act of splitting of a cell, particularly during the telophase of (animal) cell division.
Budding Form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Cancer Abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Mutagen A physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material usually DNA and increases frequency of mutations
Benign Cells growth that do not invade other parts of the body
Malignant Cell growth that do not invade other cells
Metastasis The spread from part of body to another.
Created by: jcore