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AICE Biology

Smoking and disease

Atherosclerosis The accumulation of fatty materials in artery walls, called
Angina Pectoris Severe chest pain from exertion, will go away with rest and no damaged cause.
Myocardial infarction (heart attack) Obstruction by blood clot, tissue starved of oxygen and tissue death will occur.
Heart failure blockage, damage, gradual damage which makes the heart weak
Stroke Loss of oxygen to specific part of brain. Artery in brain burst and leaks into brain tissue. Neurons are starved at oxygen and tissue death occurs (cerebral infarction). Goes from minor to mild to severe.
Nicotine Increase in pressure, heart rate, and demand of oxygen. Absorbed by blood, travels to brain and stimulates vasoconstriction(decreases blood flow to extremities). Highly addictive.
Carbon monoxide reduces haemoglobin ability to carry oxygen. Diffuses across walls of alveoli and into blood, forms carboxyhemoglobin. This replaces oxygen, damages the lining of arteries and reduces quantity of oxygen.
Stroke damage damage will be determined by what part of brain is affected.
Thrombus Rough surface of lining of an artery from plague breaking through lining, this leads to tissue starvation. Causes damage to the endothelium.
Tar settles on lining of airways, stimulates changes lead to obstructive lung diseases and lung cancer.
Nicotine increases increases stickiness of platelets and blood clotting along arteries.
Asthmatic attack smooth muscles contract and this obstructs the flow of airways. this makes breathing difficult.
Severe coughing can lead to to damage in the alveoli and it is replaced with scar tissue.
Tar stimulates goblet cells and mucus glands to enlarge and secrete more mucus.
Tar destroys cilia which makes them not present when cross section is examined.
Lung cancer Tar has the carcinogens. It reacts directly or via breakdown products with DNA in epithelial cells to produce mutations leads to malignant tumor. Cancer spreads through bronchial epithelium and enters lymphatic tissues and metastasizes.
amount of time it takes for lung cancer develops 20 to 30 yrs. Very big sign is coughing up blood.
Emphysema The phagocytes will release a protein called elastase (digesting enzyme), destroying elastin (in lining of airways) reducing expansion and recoil or airways. Bronchioles collapse, alveoli will burst and leave spaces. Causes reduction of surface area.
More on emphysema Exhalation of air will decrease from 4 dm^3 to 1 dm^3 leaves stagnant air (takes up space) in the lung with shallow and rapid breathing. Pulmonary arteries then increase in pressure which enlarges right ventricle.
Tobacco smoke contains tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine.
the signs and symptoms of COPD breathlessness, wheezing and constant coughing
symptoms of lung cancer coughing up blood and chest pains
Smoking damages the cardiovascular system, increasing atherosclerosis and increasing the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
Created by: jcore



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