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AICE Biology

gas exchange

Pleural Membrane fluid lubricated sacs around the lung
Diaphragm lungs are ventilated by the movement of it. It is a flat muscle and separates cavity from guts
Trachea wind pipe going down the throat
Bronchi two tubes that lead to lungs from trachea
Alveoli end of line where air goes. Thin epithelial lining (one cell) and surround by many capillaries(carrying deoxygnated blood) from bronchioles. Contain elastic fibers which stretch and recoil (never relax).
Bronchioles smaller branches of bronchi which go to lungs. Surrounded by smooth muscle which can CONTRACT or RELAX to adjust the diameter of airways.
Goblet Cells creates mucus, located in ciliated epithelium.
Mucin creates mucus, composed of glycoprotein with carbohydrate chains that have from sticky and able to trap particles.
Ciliated Cells BTW goblet cells and continually beat upwards to dispel mucus
Macrophages Phagocytic WBCs, patrol the surface of the airways and scavenge bacteria and fine dust particles
Residual volume amount of air still in lungs after a forceful exhalation, 1 dm^3
Tidal volume normal inhalation and exhalation, .5 dm^3
Expiratory reserve volume what is left after normal breathing, 2.5 dm^3
Inspiratory reserve volume max. inhalation
Vital capicity max inhalation and exhalation. different for men, women, and athletes
Ventilation rate tidal volume x breathing rate = dm^3min^-1
Stroke volume volume of blood pumped out from each ventricle during each contraction.
Cardiac output total volume pumped out per minute. How much blood heart can pump in a minute.
Systolic pressure at which blood levels left ventricle into the aorta.
Diastolic Pressure when the ventricle is resting. There will always be pressure, value reflects the resistance of small arteries and capillaries in blood flow.
sphygmomanometer give blood pressure varies in mm Hg.
Hypertension when systolic and diastolic pressure are high even at rest. This damages arteries since they harden which makes the heart pump harder. The links to this is excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, genetic factors, and too much salt in diet.
Thoracic cavity chest, lungs are located there along with the heart.
What shape is the cartilage in the trachea C- shaped
inhalation in diaphragm contracts so it moves down and rib cage expands
exhalation in diaphragm relaxes so it moves up and rib cage smaller
pathway of gas exhange Trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles (bronchial tree) -> alveoli
Created by: jcore



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