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unit heredity

TermDefinition
dna deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living and that contains the information that that determines the traits that a living inherits and needs to live
chromosomes a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
cell cycle the cycle of growth and asexual reproduction of a cell, consisting of interphase followed in actively dividing cells by prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
interphase the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
mitosis The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, and normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes. Al
cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
homologous chromosomes a chromosome with the same gene sequence as another. Supplement. In a biological cell, a chromosome pairs with another chromosome during meiosis. This pairing (synapsis) happens between two chromosomes that are homologous, i.e. chromosomes having the same
meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
asexual reproduction An organism capable of asexual reproduction is able to produce offspring in the absence of a mate
sexual reproduction the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes). In most higher organisms, one sex (male) produces a small motile gamete that travels to fuse with a larger stationary gamete produced
fertilization a process in sexual reproduction that involves the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes (each with a single, haploid set of chromosomes) to produce a diploid zygote
heredity Heredity is the genetic information passing for traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction
genes It is because a gene is a segment of DNA (on a specific site on a chromosome) that is responsible for the physical and inheritable characteristics or phenotype of an organism
alleles One member of a pair (or any of the series) of genes occupying a specific spot on a chromosome (called locus) that controls the same trait.
genotype The genotype refers to the entire set of genes in a cell, an organism, or an individual
phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
dominant An allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype, masking the effect of the recessive allele or gene when present
recessive a recessive gene or allele is one in which the effect is not tangible, or is masked by the effects of the dominant gene. The recessive trait may be expressed when the recessive genes are in homozygous condition or when the dominant gene is not present
incomplete dominance a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles.
codominance A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other.
punnet square a graph used to predict results of a genetic cross
probability The likelihood of an event to occur. Supplement. Probability is used to measure the chances or likelihood of an event to occur, a hypothesis being correct, or a scientific prediction being true. In biology, it is used in predicting the outcome of a geneti
ratio a comparison of two numbers using division
pedigree a diagram that shows the occurecnce of a genetic trait in several generations of family
Created by: apetway