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Heredity

Heretity

TermDefinition
DNA a molecule that is present in all living cells that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live
Chromosomes one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein
Cell Cycle life cycle of a cell
Interphase period of the cell cycle during which activities such as cll growth and protein synthesis occur w/o visible signs of cell division
Mitosis process of a cell division that forms two new nuclei
Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm of a cell
homologous chromosomes a chromosome with the same gene sequence as another
meiosis type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores
asexual reproduction form of reproduction that does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction or fertilization, and the offspring is a clone of the parent organism;because of no exchange of genetic material
sexual reproduction the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes).
fertilization A process in sexual reproduction that involves the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes
heredity genetic information passing for traits from parents to their offspring
gene a segment of DNA (on a specific site on a chromosome) that is responsible for the physical and inheritable characteristics
allele one of the possible forms of a gene
genotype A set of alleles that determines the expression of a particular characteristic or trait
phenotype an organism's expressed physical traits
dominant An allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype, masking the effect of the recessive allele or gene when present.
recessive one in which the effect is not tangible, or is masked by the effects of the dominant gene
incomplete dominance form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele
codominance form of dominance in which the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed thereby resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive
Punnett square diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
probability The likelihood of an event to occur
ratio the number of times a genotype would appear in the offspring after a test cross
pedigree An ancestral line or chart depicting the lineage or descent of an individual
Created by: m.carroll24