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Unit Heredity

TermDefinition
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living cells and that contain the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live.
Interphase the period of the cell cycle during which activities such as cell growth and protein synthesis occur without visible signs of cell division.
Chromosomes In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
mitosis In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes.
cell cycle the life cycle of a cell
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm of a cell.
Homologous Chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure.
meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells.
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.
sexual reproduction reproduction in which the sex cells from the two parents unite to produce offspring that share traits from both parents.
fertilization the union of a male and female gamete to form a zygote.
heredity the passing of genetic material from parent to offspring.
gene one set of instructions for an inherited trait.
allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits.
phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic.
dominant in genetics, describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual.
recessive describes an allele that will be masked unless the organism is homozygous for the trait.
incomplete dominance a condition in which two alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is an intermediate of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents.
codominance a condition in which two alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is a combination of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents.
Punnett square a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross.
probability
ratio
pedigree
Created by: qveen._natalie
 

 



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