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Basic Genetics

Genetics Terms and How to work problems

having two alleles that are the same for a particular trait. Example: AA or aa ( you could also say two genes that are the same) Homozygous
Homozygous having two genes or alleles that are the same for a particular trait
having two different alleles for a particular trait. Example Aa ( you could also say genes ...but this is the real meaning of alleles) Heterozygous
If your genotype is Aa you are described as Heterozygous
another word for heterozygous hybrid
Heterozygous or Hybrid having two different alleles for a particular trait
allele alternative forms of a single gene ( different forms of same gene)..example in seed color there is one form for yellow and another form for green . Yellow is a dominant form (Y) and green is the recessive form (y)
different forms of the same gene ...such as a dominant form and a recessive form alleles
the organism's allele pairs or gene pairs is described as a/an genotype
this is an example of a _____. AABbCcdd genotype...
AABbCcdd describes a ___ for ____traits genotype .... 4 traits ( 2 per trait)
The observable characteristics or outward expression of the allele pairs or gene pairs phenotype
The best way to determine a dog's phenotype Look at the dog and describe its characteristics.. wavy hair, black spots, etc
A cross that involves the hybrids or heterozygotes for a single trait is a special cross called a/an monohybrid cross
What are the parents in a monohybrid cross... use the letters A and a Aa x Aa
The organism that is Aa can make what type of gametes by meiosis... and what Mendel law are we using A or a ( 50% of each is possible) Mendel's law of segregation
the phenotype ratio of the offspring in a monohybrid cross is consistently 3:1 3 dominant to 1 recessive offspring (worth knowing)
When you have two traits at a time , it is possible to have dihybrids... what would a dihybrid be using trait A and trait B AaBb
if you crossed AaBb x AaBb then it would be called a/an dihybrid cross
what would the parents of a dihybrid cross be using trait A and trait B AaBb x AaBb
Mendel has another law that involves two traits.. he figured out that the two traits do not interfere with each other when gametes are made( there is a random distribution of alleles during gamete formation ) mendel was lucky with this one law of independent assortment
Which law involves two traits and only works when the genes are on separate chromosomes law of independent assortment
If the individual is AaBb and the genes are on separate chromosomes , What gametes are possible AB Ab aB ab (use foil to determine)
If the parents are AaBb x AaBb ( a dihybrid cross). they will have a consistent phenotype ratio in their offspring ( double the monohybrid cross)... what is the outcome 9:3:3:1 9 with both dominant traits/ 3 with a dominant trait and a recessive trait/ 3 flipped around ( recessive, dominant) and 1 that has both recessive traits
If you see offspring that are in a ratio of 9:3:3:1 ...example 9 have both dominant traits, 3 have dominant ,recessive, 3 have recessive dominant, and 1 recessive recessive traits) what are the parents... use the letters A, a , B, b AaBb x AaBb
If T= tongue rolling and t= non rolling and R= right handed and r= left handed.. We get a phenotype ratio : 9 rollers, right handed 3 rollers lefty, 3 non- rollers, righty and 1 non-roller, lefty ... The parents are TtRr x TtRr
T= tongue roller t= non-roller R= right handed r = left handed. will the mating of TTrr x TtRr give you a 9:3:3:1 ratio of phenotypes NO... you would get 50% rollers with right hands and 50% rollers with left hands
What tool can help predict the possible offspring of a cross between two known genotypes a punnett square
what is on the inside of the punnett square the possible combinations of the gametes ( after fertilization) the offsprings genotypes are inside the punnett square ( REMEMBER THIS IS PREDICTED... NOT ACTUAL)
what do you put on the outside of the punnett square The gametes of the parents go along the top and side or the outside of the punnett square ( after meiosis has occurred)
To fill out the outside of the punnett square, what process must occur and which one of Mendel's laws is happening meiosis must occur.. and Mendel's law of segregation
Why did Mendel do experiments with a large number of offspring the larger the number of offspring involved in a cross the more likely it will match the results predicted by the punnett square.
Did Mendel get exactly 3:1 ratios or 9:3:3;1 ratios when he did his experiments No the actual results might not match perfectly because genetics has probability in gamete formation and fertilization
Created by: shemehl



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