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Immunity and Defense

Innate Immunity is __________. non specific
Adaptive (acquired Immunity) __________ is. specific
responds to the first and second line of defense Innate Immunity
responds to the third line of defense Adaptive immunity (specific)
Type of defense that is considered the outside environment first line of defense
type of defense that occurs inside the host second line of defense and (innate) non specific third line of defense (adaptive) specific
Intact skin Mucous membranes and their secretions normal microbiota innate immunity first line of defense
natural killer cells and phagocytic white blood cells inflammation fever antimicrobial substances second line of defense (innate immunity)
specialized lymphocytes cells and B cells antibodies third line of defense (adaptive acquired immunity)
Innate immunity is present_________> at birth.
Adaptive acquired/specific) is partially__________. present at birth
Innate immunity is non_________ and does not have any _______ cells. non specific, memory
The time of response for Innate Immunity is Immediately
The time of response for Adaptive Immunity is days to weeks
T/F Innate immunity and adaptive immunity have extensive interaction. True
Innate immunity has immunological "_____________" that are carried out by ___________. check points, dendritic cells
The natural antimicrobials that are associated with innate immunity are: lysozymes, antimicrobial peptides, antibodies
On the Mucosal and skin surfaces the physical barrier of innate immunity include: mucus that traps microorganisms, cilia low respiratory tract mucous coated hair in nose flow washing
Lysozyme's are enzymes that degrades peptidoglycan's such as: sweat, saliva, tears, nasal secretions
Lysozymes are more likely to affect gram positives they are more suitable than gram negatives
cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by defense and epithelial cells.
cationic Antimicrobial peptides (Amp)s are 15-50 amino acids, positively charged and amphipathic that selectively disrupt membranes without cholesterol
cationic Antimicrobial peptides kill bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses
cell penetrating AMPs inhibits DNA and protein synthesis
AMPs display chemotactic activity and recruit defense cells
In the skin the Keratin layer (waterproofing) constant sheds hypertonic (very dry) Hard to degrade/diges
In the skin sebaceous glands antimicrobial fatty acids and a ph 3-5 very acidic
Perspiration in the skin involves___________. lysozymes
The upper respiratory tract provide protection by _______. epithelium, mucus, ciliary escalator, sloughing
The lower respiratory tract provides protection in _______. the alveoli by macrophages
flow washing prevents colonization of : tears, saliva, urine, vaginal secretions and feces
Gastric Juice has: Ph of 1.2 to 3 hydrochloric acid enzymes mucus flow
Toll-like recognize non-self molecules that are broadly shared among pathogens )PAMPs
PAMPs stands for pathogen associated molecular patterns.
toll like receptors are located on epithelial cells and after microbes breach are the first line of defense
Molecules that toll like receptors recognize among pathogens are: peptidoglycans, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) flagella in flagella lipopolysaccharides acid and nucleic acids
cells that are activated by toll like receptor's (TLC) express cytokines antimicrobial peptides chemicals that promote inflammation
multifunctional cellular chemical messengers cytokines
cytokines are made from________. proteins and glycoproteins
Cytokines are critical to the functioning of both _______ and ______ immune responses. innate, adaptive
Cytokines induce complex and diverse cellar responses that up regulate or down regulate cell activity such as: cell differentiation, cell proliferation, secretion of other cytokines
chemokines (many cell types) are the attractants (type of cytokines)
Interferons (many cell types) antiviral(type of cytokines) modulation of immune response
interleukins (white blood cells) development and differentiation of white blood cells
Lymphokines (lymphocytes) regulation of immune response
The cellar blood defense mechanism includes: white blood cells
neutrophils and macrophages perform phagocytosis
Natural-killer cells kill altered cells
Lymphocytes that are part of the immune response______. T and B cells
The blood serum defense mechanisms for innate immunity antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Mannose-binding lectins Complement proteins Iron binding proteins (ferrins)
The blood serum defense mechanism for adaptive immunity is _____. antibodies.
serum is the_________________. liquid component of blood
Mannose -binding lectin (a serum protein) promotes phagocytosis activates complement system
Mannose _binding lectin recognizes and binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens(viruses, bacteria, fungi protozoa)
The complement system consist of at least 30 short lived serum protein
What three pathways activate the complement system? Adaptive immunity classical (antibodies) Innate immunity (alternative) bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides Mannose binding lectin (MBL) mannose on pathogen
What are the functions of the complement system opsonizatin (stimulates phagocytosis) cytolysis (cell desturctin) inflammation
Opsonization stimulates phagocytosis and is activated by complement protein (C3b) binding to the surface of the antigen
Cytolysis is cell destruction and causes damage of the plasma membrane (leakage and death) formation of membrane attach complexes
Inflammation triggers histamine release and _______________ which increases blood vessel permeability and promotes migration of cells to the site of inflammation.
The outcome of the activation of the complement system is inflammation, phagocytosis and destruction of the pathogen
c3b initiates a series of reactions involving c5-cp called the membrane attach complex (a pore is formed) leakage of the cells contents
Macrophages are highly active phagocytic cells that can be found fixed or free
free wandering macrophages circulate in the blood that migrate to inflammation sites
fixed macrophages are: found lining endothelial cells of capillaries throughout the body
phagocytosis the ingestion of particular matter is mostly done by neutrophils and macrophages
The preparation of a pathogen for ingestion by serum is done by opsonization antibodies, complement, mannose binding lectin MBL
The early phagocytic cells are: Neutrophils and are (60 to 70%)
The late phagocytic cells are: fixed macrophages and wandering macrophages 3-8%
phagocytosis is activated by cytokines chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion digestion antigen processing
Chemotaxis is a chemical attraction of phagocyte to microorganism
Chemotaxis is released by microbial products damaged tissue(histamine) white blood cell components (cytokines) chemokines
Phagosome fuses with lysosome (digestive enzymes) forming the phagolysosome
Lysosome digestive enzymes of the phagolysosome are: lysozyme lipase protease nucleases oxygen free radicals hypochlorus acid
The pathogen evasion of phagocytosis include: adherence inhibition (capsule) many organisms escape from phagosome inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion kill phagocyte (release of cytoplasmic lysosome contents)
Inflammation is a localized protection response of the body to tissue and may include: pain, heat redness, swelling loss of function
T/F Excessive inflammation may respond in damage true
The function of inflammation includes: destroying invading agents walling off invading agents repair or replace damage tissue stimulate immune response
Natural killer cells are lymphocytes (not T or B cells) that kill altered cells that under express MHH-1 molecules.
Types of cells that natural killer cells kill are: cancer cells, virus infected cells and bacteria infected cells (intracellular)
Natural killer cells kill cells recognized by antibodies has IgG antibody receptor
IFNs a, B are antiviral proteins (cytokines) produced by virus infected cells and interfere with viral multiplication
IFN y promotes phagocytosis enhances adaptive immune response
interferon (antivirals) host cell specific not virus specific short lived no effect on infected cells
antiviral proteins destroy viral RNA and inhibit protein synthesis
Created by: 1155187441193384



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