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Biology Midterm

QuestionAnswer
What are proteins polymers of? amino acids
What type of chemical reaction connecst monomers together to make polymers? dehydration
What is the role of enzymes in cells? they speed up the chemical reactions neccessary for life
How do enzymes perform their job? they lower the activation energy of the process they catalyze
What is the name of the protein that carries oxygen in the blood? hemoglobin
What are the reactants in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction called? substrates
What two things affect the activity of an enzyme? temperature and pH
What is the name of the cellular structure that makes proteins? ribsomes
What is the name of the site on an enzyme to which reactants bind? active site
What type of bond connects water moelcules to each other? hydrogen bond
What type of bond connects atoms to each other within a single water molecule? covalent bond
What word describes the bonding of water molecules to other water molecules? cohesion
What word describes the bonding of water molecules to substances other than water? adhesion
Consider a beaker with a solution of salt dissolved in water. What component of the solution is the salt? solute
Consider a beaker with a solution of salt dissolved in water. What component of the solution is the water? solvent
An acid is a substance that ________ the concentration of _______ of a solution. raises; hydrogen ions
What term describes chemicals that stabilize the pH of a solution? buffers
How many bonds can one water molecule make to other water molecules at the same time? 4
Why can some insects stand on the surface of the water? because water is cohesive and creates surface tension
What is transipiration? the process that releases water vapor from plants
If transpiration stopped completely, what would be the first effect on the plant? water molecules would not be released from leaves
Why does ice float? because it's less dense than water and it's preventing the body of water from freezing solid
What is the range of acidic pH? 0-6
What is the range of basic pH? 8-14
What is neutral pH? 7
What is the scientific term for a substance that attracts water molecules? hydrophilic
What is the scientific term for a substance that does not attract water molecules? hydrophobic
What is the smallest thing that contains all the feaures of life? cell
What is homeostasis? mechanisms that maintain a core body temperature within a very narrow range
The genes of all cells are made out of what? DNA
What is a hypothesis? a possible explanation put into testable statement
What is the name for the group that a scientist compares the experimental group to? control group
What word refers to all the chemical reactions that go on inside a living organism? metabolism
Name the 3 things a plant cell has that an animal cell doesn't. cell wall, chloroplasts, and a large vacuole
Name 4 things an animal cell has that a plant cell doesn't. lysosomes, flagella, cholesterol, centrioles
Name 8 things both an animals cell and a plant cell have. cell membrane, cytoplasm, smooth ER, rough ER, golgi body, mitochondria, nucleus, and ribosomes
What is the function of the cell membrane? separates the inside of the cell from the outside and helps cells sense an outside environment
What is the function of the cytoplasm? - in prokaryotes, it's everything inside the cell membrane - in eukaryotes, it's everything inside the cell membrane except the nucleus
What is the function of the nucleus? contains most of the cell's DNA and it's the "brain" or "control center"
What is the function of the cell wall? provides structural support and keeps osmosis
What is the function of the large vacuole? storage
What is the function of the Mitochondria? cellular respiration
What is the function of the rough ER? helps fold and transport proteins
What is the function of the smooth ER? makes and transports lipids
What is the function of the chroloplast? photosynthesis
Created by: 3092438