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BIO Chapter 17

Gene Expression: from Gene to Protein

Transcription- the synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA
Messenger RNA- carries a message from the DNA to protein-synthesizing machinery in the cell
Translation- synthesis of polypeptides using the information from mRNA
Ribosomes- the sites of translation, molecular complexes that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains
Primary transcript- the initial RNA transcript from any gene
Codon- the mRNA nucleotide triplets
Triplet code- the genetic instructions for a polypeptide chain are written in the DNA as a series of non-overlapping three-nucleotide words
Template strand- provides the pattern for the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
RNA polymerase- pries the two strands of DNA apart and joins together RNA nucleotides complimentary to the template strand
Transcription step one- initiation
Transcription step two- elongation
Transcription step three- termination
Initiation- after RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, the DNA strands unwind, and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at the start point on the template strand
Elongation- The polymerase moves downstream, unwinding the DNA and elongating the RNA transcript 5’ to 3’. DNA reform in double helix
Termination- eventually, the RNA transcript is released, and the polymerase detaches from the DNA
Promoter- the DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription
Terminator- the sequence that signals the end of transcription
Transcription unit- the stretch of DNA downstream from the promoter that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
A eukaryotic promoter- no answer
Transcription factors- mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
TATA box- crucial promoter DNA sequence
Transcription initiation complex- The whole complex of transcription factors and RNA polymerase II bind to it
Start point- the nucleotide where RNA synthesis actually begins
RNA splicing- the removal of large portions of the RNA molecule that is initially synthesized
Introns- the noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding regions
Exons- the coding segments of nucleic acid
Spliceosome- the removal of introns is accomplished by a large complex made of protein and RNA
Alternative RNA splicing- many genes give rise to two or more polypeptides depending on which segments are exons during RNA processing
Transfer RNA- transfer amino acids from cytoplasmic pool of amino acids to a growing polypeptide
Anticodon- specific nucleotide triplet that base pairs to a specific mRNA codon
Ribosomal RNA- what makes up the small and large subunit of a ribosome
P site- holds tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain
A site- holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
E site- discharged tRNA’s leave from here
Codon recognition- anticodon of an incoming aminoacyl tRNA base-pairs with the complimentary mRNA codon in the A site
Peptide bond formation- rRNA molecule in the large subunit catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond
Translocation- ribosome translocates the tRNA in the A site to the B site
Elongation (translation)- tRNA that compliments codon move into the A site bringing with it the proper amino acids, translocation, peptide bond forms between amino acids
Termination of translation- release factor binds to stop codon, all components of translation assembly are released, ribosomal subunits fall away, RNA gets translated, all parts get reused
Polyribosome- multiple work on the same mRNA at the same time, folding and modification of polypeptide chains
Point mutations- effect a few small changes in a few nucleotides, change phenotype substitution point mutation
Created by: mr_spangler



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