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BIO Chapter 16

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

TermDefinition
Chargaff- investigated DNA composition in different species, determined DNA held genetic material
DNA replication- the process of how DNA is copied
Structure of DNA is- double stranded, helix
Sugar and phosphate groups form ___________of DNA- backbone
What makes up DNA? sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base
What two things pair to make the rungs of the ladder of DNA? purine and pyrimidine
Replication/origin sites- spots along the length of eukaryotic DNA where replication starts
Semi-conservative replication- proposed by Watson and Crick, the idea that DNA has to replicate itself
Initiator protein- binds to the origin sight before replication can begin
Helicases- unwinds at the site of origin
SSB proteins- bind to single strands to hold DNA in unwound position
Topoisomerase enzymes- relieve the supercoiling upstream of DNA replication by clipping the rejoining DNA strands
Primase- enzyme made of RNA that synthesizes a short sequence of nucleotides called a primer that compliments the DNA template. New DNA strand grows from this.
DNA polymerases- catalyze the synthesis of DNA, takes appropriate nucleoside triphosphate and attaches it to the 3’ OH terminal of new DNA
What direction do enzymes add nucleotides in? – 5’ Right Arrow 3’
Nucleotide- phosphate group, sugar, nitrogenous base that, put together, make up DNA
Replication fork- a y-shaped portion where parent DNA is being unwound
Single strand binding proteins- bind to unpaired DNA strands to keep them from re-pairing
Primer- RNA chain synthesized by primase
Leading strand- The strand created by the polymerase on the top of a bubble
Lagging strand- bottom strand of a bubble that has to be replicated away from the replication fork
DNA Ligase- joins sugar-phosphate backbones of all Okazaki fragments
Okazaki fragments- fragments of the lagging strand
Proof-reading and repairing DNA- Checks the new nucleotides and replaces the incorrectly pairing nucleotides
Mismatch repair- many repair enzymes remove and repair DNA mismatches after synthesis occurs
Nucleotide excision repair- repairs larger-scale damage to DNA strand
Telomeres- the ends of chromosomes, short nucleotide sequences repeated countless times, protect organic genes
Repeated sequence in humans- TTAGGG
Packaging of chromatin involves- DNA, Histones, Nucleosomes, 30 nm fiber, looped domains, metaphase chromosome
Histones- protein responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin
Nucleosomes- histones coiled with DNA strands
30 nm Fiber- interactions between the histone tails and linker DNA, pulls it all in tighter
Loops domains- 30 nm fiber forms loops, making a tighter fiber
Chromosomes- packed histones and DNA
Chromatid- one half of a chromosome
Created by: mr_spangler