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BIO Chapter 14

Mendel and the Gene Idea

Who is Mendel? scientist who made genetic breakthroughs by studying peas
Why did Mendel use peas for his research? rapid growth and he could manually control who mated with who
P generation- true-breeding parents
F1 generation- p generation hybrid offspring
F2 generation- second filial generation
True-breeding- over many generations of self-pollination they only produce the same variety as the parent plant
What was the ratio of all of Mendel’s initial experiment? 3/4 to ¼
Phenotype- expression of a physical trait
Alleles- alternate versions of genes
Genotype- genetic makeup
Dominant allele- determines appearance
Recessive allele- has no noticeable effect on appearance
Segregation- two alleles for a heritable character segregate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes.
Punnett square- diagraming tool used to predict allele formation
Homozygous- a pair of identical alleles
Heterozygous- two different alleles for the same gene
Multiplication rule- the probability of two independent events occurring in combination is equal to the product of their separate probabilities
Incomplete dominance- situations in which a heterozygote for a character doesn’t show a complete dominance/recessive relationship
Co-dominance- when an organism is heterozygote for a character and both alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways.
Pleiotropy- when a single gene has many phenotypic effects (i.e. sickle cell)
Epistasis- a gene at one location alters the expression of a gene at another location
Polygenic inheritance- many genes influence a particular character
Quantitative characters- often show polygenic inheritance patterns
Environmental impact on phenotype- how environment can influence phenotype
Multifactorial characters- affected by many factors i.e. genotype and environment
The norm of reaction: the pattern of phenotypes produced by a given genotype under different environmental conditions
Narrow norm of reaction- albinism, ABO blood type, Huntington disease
Broader norm of reaction skin color, height, IQ
Created by: mr_spangler