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BIO Chapter 12


Why do cells divide? cell growth and development, replace themselves, repair, reproduction
Nuclear division- what goes on in the nucleus
Two types of nuclear division- mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis produces- two genetically identical daughter cells that are also identical to the mother cell
Meiosis produces- one cell gives rise to four daughter cells, each genetically different with half the genetical material of the mother cell
Interphase- the state the cell is in when it is not dividing
Mitotic phase and cytokinesis- the process in which the end result is two genetically identical cells
Five stages of mitosis- prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis
Prophase- chromatin coils up to form chromosomes, nucleoli disappear, mitotic spindle forms
Prometaphase- nuclear envelope ruptures, mitotic spindle enters the nuclear area
Metaphase- chromosomes align at midline of cell
Anaphase- sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles, cell elongates due to the action of non-kinetochore fibers
Telophase and cytokinesis- nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes uncoil to form chromatin, spindle disappears, cytokinesis
Cytokinesis- cell cycle regulation
Gap 1 checkpoint- if the cell is not ready for cell division it will be stopped, if it is ready it will continue
M checkpoint- checks for full chromosomal attachment
External regulating factors- growth factor, density dependent inhibition, anchorage dependence
Internal molecule regulation- cyclically operating set of molecules that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell
Cyclin-dependent kinases- enzymes responsible for phosphorylating molecules to activate/inactivate them, present in cytoplasm
Cyclin- protein molecules whose concentration oscillates during the cell cycle
Created by: mr_spangler