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How many chromosomes do humans have? 46
What is a chromosome? How we hold DNA
What is chromatin? One long DNA molecule & prodiens that help maintain the chromosome structure & control the activid of its genes.
What is a chromatid? DNA condensed (In this form when cell is dividing)
What do we call two identical chromatids that are connected? Sister chromatid
What is the place where the chromatids are connected called? Centromere
What is the process called that bacteria use to divide? Binary fission
How is a bacteria chromosome different from that of a human? A bacteria chromosome is circular DNA and is one strand, but a human has 46 chromosomes
Give three reasons that cells divide. Growth, Repair, Replace
What stage of the cell cycle does the stay in most of the time? Interphase (G1)
What stage of the cell cycle is the cell growing? Interphase (G1 & G2)
What happens in the G1 phase? Growth & matures in cytoplasm
What happens in the S phase? Duplication of chromosomes
What happens in the G2 phase? Growth, Prepares to divide, Centrosomes are built.
Describe what the G0 phase is. Non-dividing cell
Give two examples of cells that remain in interphase and do not enter into mitosis, Brain cells, Red blood cells, Heart cells
What stage of the cycle is the nucleus splitting? Mitosis
What do we call the original cell that eventually divides? Parent cell
What do we call the two cells after the division has occurred? Daughter Cells
What stage of the cell cycle is the cell splitting? Cytokinesis
What are the stages of mitosis in order? Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens in prophase? Spindle microtubules reach chromosomes, nuclear envelope dissapears
What happens in prometaphase? Microtubules begin to emerge, chromosomes coil & become compact.
What happens in metaphase? Chromosomes align at the cell equator.
What happens in anaphase? Sister chromatids separate at the centromeres
What happens in telophase? Nuclear envelope forms, Chromatin uncoils, Spinal disappears
What is cytokinesis? Division of cell
How is cytokinesis different in plant and animal cells? Animal cells completely split in half by a cleavage furrow & plant cells build a wall (Cell Plate) between each cell.
What stage of the cell cycle is the longest? Interphase (G1)
What stage of the cell cycle is the shortest? Cytokinesis
What stage of the mitosis is the longest? Prophase
What stage of the mitosis is the shortest? Anaphase
What does the mitotic spindle do? Attach to kinetochore & pull chromosomes apart.
What is the role of a centrosome? Organize microtubule arrangement & contain a pair of centrioles in animal cells.
Give three major contributing factors that control division. Growth factors, Anchorage, Density Dependence (Space around the Cell)
What is the G1 checkpoint checking for? G1 checkpoint checks if surroundings are favorable for dividing. if cell is large enough & healthy enough for dividing, and if any damage has occurred in DNA.
What is the G2 checkpoint checking for? G2 checkpoint checks for the DNA properly replicated without damage, and if the cells are large enough for division.
When does the M checkpoint occur? In metaphase
What does the M checkpoint check for? M checkpoint checks that each centromere is attached to a spindle fiber and that chromosomes are aligned properly at the cell equator.
What do we call it when a cell loses control of the cell cycle? Tumor
What is the difference between a tumor and cancer? Tumor- An abnormally growing mass of cells Cancer- Cells spread to other tissues grow rapidly without being inhibited by other cells
What does benign mean? Cells remain that the original site (Tumor)
What does malignant mean? Spread to other locations
What is metastasis? When malignant tumors spread.
Give three ways to treat cancers. Remove surgically, treat with concentrated beam of high energy radiation, chemotherapy.
What are the three main types of cancer and how do they differ? Carcinomas- external or internal body coverings Sarcomas- supportive & connective tissue Leukemias & Lymphomas- blood forming tissues
What is a kinetochore? Where spindle attaches to chromosome.
At what phase does the nuclear envelope disappear? Prometaphase
At what phase does the nuclear envelope reappear? Telophase
At what phase do chromosomes begin to condense? Prophase
At what stage do the sister chromatids get pulled apart? Anaphase
At what stage do the sister chromatid pairs line up at the cell equator? Metaphase
Created by: Elise.Postma