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Exam 3


The Phases of Mitosis The four basic phases of mitosis in order are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
The Phases of Meiosis The phases of meiosis are prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II then new daughter cells are produced.
Functions of Mitosis. The main functions of mitosis are growth and repair.
Function of Meiosis It is the stage of the life cycle when a cell gives rise to two haploid cells each having half as many chromosomes.
The Purpose of Cyclins Cyclins are proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin dependent kinase enzymes.
Cytokinesis The cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, resulting in the separation into two daughter cells.
Binary Fission It is the most common kind of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes and occurs in some single-celled eukaryotes
Differentiation of Cells The process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs many times during the development of a multicellular organisms.
Phenotype Vs. Genotype An organism's genotype is the set of genes that it carries. An organism's phenotype is all of its observable characteristics which are influenced both by its genotype and by the environment.
Heterozygous vs. Homozygous A heterozygous person is someone who has two different alleles at a locus. A homozygous person has two identical alleles at a locus.
Types of Gametes Produced by AaBb There are four possible combinations of gametes for the AaBb parent. Half of the gametes get a dominant A and a dominant B allele; the other half of the gametes get a recessive a and a recessive b allele.
Testcross A genetic cross between a homozygous recessive individual and a corresponding suspected heterozygote to determine the genotype of the heterozygote.
Idependent Assortments How different genes independently separate from one another when reproductive cells develop.
Incomplete Dominence Is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. The result is a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles.
Polygenic Inheritance Happens when one characteristic is controlled by two or more genes. Frequently the genes are great in quantity but small in effect.
Epistasis The interaction of genes that are not alleles specifically in the suppression of the effect of one such gene by another.
Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Genetics Mendelian Genetics follow "Medel's Laws" that describe inheritance of traits linked to single genes on chromosomes in the nucleus. Non-Mendelian inheritance is a general term that refers to any pattern when traits do not segregate following Mendel's laws.
Observations Made by Darwin Darwin's important observations of nature are that members of a population of the same species vary in their traits, traits are passed from parents to offspring and,populations are capable of producing more offspring than the environment can support.
Fitness in the evolutionary sense Fitness is the genetic representation of survivability of an organism after after natural and sexual selection of an. It can be defined either with respect to a genotype or to a phenotype in a given environment.
Analogous Structures The structures, such as wings, in different species having the same function but have evolved separately,
Homologous Structures A structure is an organ that appears in different animals, physical commonalities that demonstrate descent from a common ancestor.
Types of Evolution The three main types of evolution: divergent, convergent, and parallel evolution.
Types of Selection Different types of natural selection are, stabilizing selection when average phenotype is favored, directional selection, a change in the environment also changes the characteristics of phenotypes observed, and diversifying selection
Hardy Weinburg Hardy–Weinberg came up with the principle which states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation unless other evolutionary influences occur
Genetic Equilibrium The situation of an allele or genotype in a gene pool where the frequency does not change from generation to generation.
Types of Genetic Drift Variation in the frequency of different genotypes in a small population, allowing for the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
Continuous Vs. Discontinuous Variation Discontinuous variation is controlled by alleles of a single gene or a small number of genes and the environment does not have much of an effect on it. Continuous variation is the effect of many genes and is often greatly affected by the environment.
Vicariance Event The process where the geographical range of a taxon, is split into discontinuous parts by the formation of a physical or biotic barrier to gene flow or dispersal.
Blood Typing Everyone has a blood type either A, B, AB, or O and it is either positive or negative. Blood types are inherited from parents. Each biological parent donates one of two ABO genes to their kids. The A and B genes are dominant and the O gene is recessive.
Genetic Recombination in Meiosis Recombination during meiosis is assisted by chromosomal crossover in eukaryotes. The crossover process leads genetic variance from those of their parents.
Speciation Concepts The evolutionary process by which isolated biological populations evolve to become distinct species. The four modes of speciation in nature are allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric.



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